El ámbito de la fonética clínica


Fonética clínica

Fonología clínica


Fonética clínica

El ámbito de la fonética clínica

Aplicación de la metodología propia de la fonética al campo de las alteraciones del habla.

«If phonetics is the scientific study and description of speech sounds, then clinical phonetics is the application of this approach to the speech sounds used by speakers with a speech problem» (p. 3).

Ball, M. J. y Lowry, O. M. (2001). Methods in clinical phonetics. Whurr. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470777879
(Fuente de la imagen: Martin J. Ball. (s. f.). https://martinjball.webs.com)

«Clinical phonetics: applications of phonetics in the clinic, including information about speech sounds, and the perceptual skills used in phonetic transcription» (p. 3).

Shriberg, L. D. y Kent, R. D. (2003). Clinical phonetics (3.a ed.). Allyn and Bacon.
(Fuente de la imagen: Lawrence Shriberg, PhD. (s. f.). University of Wisconsin-Madison, Communication Sciences and Disorders. https://csd.wisc.edu/staff/shriberg-lawrence/)
(Fuente de la imagen: Raymond D. Kent. (s. f.). Plural Publishing. https://www.pluralpublishing.com/author/raymond-d-kent)

La fonética clínica es una disciplina que forma parte de la lingüística clínica.

Principales categorías de trastornos lingüísticos

Principales categorías de trastornos lingüísticos.

Crystal, D. (1981). Clinical linguistics. Springer-Verlag Wien. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-4001-7

Las aproximaciones a la fonética clínica

Distintos enfoques en relación con las etapas del proceso de la comunicación.

Fonética articulatoria: estudio de la producción del habla.

Fonética perceptiva: estudio de la percepción del habla.

Fonética acústica: estudio del habla como la señal sonora portadora de información lingüística.

Fonética descriptiva de las lenguas: estudio del inventario de sonidos (fonos) de una lengua y de las características articulatorias, acústicas y perceptivas de cada sonido.

«For our purposes in this book, clinical phonetics includes two major domains: informational and perceptual. … Clinical phonetics includes a wealth of descriptive information about speech sounds. … a person who wishes to be competent in clinical phonetics must also acquire adequate skill in making perceptual discriminations» (p. 1).

Shriberg, L. D. y Kent, R. D. (2003). Clinical phonetics (3.a ed.). Allyn and Bacon.
(Fuente de la imagen: Lawrence Shriberg, PhD. (s. f.). University of Wisconsin-Madison, Communication Sciences and Disorders. https://csd.wisc.edu/staff/shriberg-lawrence/)
(Fuente de la imagen: Raymond D. Kent. (s. f.). Plural Publishing. https://www.pluralpublishing.com/author/raymond-d-kent)

Fonética clínica

Fonética experimental y patologías del habla: métodos de estudio

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Fonología clínica

El ámbito de la fonología clínica

Se ocupa de los trastornos que afectan al sistema fonológico de la lengua.

«A person with a straightforward phonetic deviation will have to be made aware of his mispronunciation and assisted in the mastery of a new articulatory gesture. A person with a phonological deficit will have to appreciate that his speech is communicatively inadequate, and then will need to acquire the new phonological contrast in his pronunciation system together with the normal articulatory gestures that signal the contrast» (p. 5).

Grunwell, P. (1987). Clinical phonology (2.a ed.). Chapman & Hall.

La fonología clínica es una disciplina que forma parte de la lingüística clínica.

Principales categorías de trastornos lingüísticos

Principales categorías de trastornos lingüísticos.

Crystal, D. (1981). Clinical linguistics. Springer-Verlag Wien. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-4001-7

La distinción entre fonética y fonología en el contexto clínico

«The application of the binary phonetics/phonology division to disordered speech is problematic. One problem revolves around the need to discriminate between phonemic and subphonemic (i.e. allophonic) errors on the one hand, but also around whether the realization of the target sound is within or outside the target phonology (defined broadly to mean both the phonemic units and their allophonic realizations). This implies that a two-way distinction is insufficient: We need to note both whether contrastivity is lost, and whether the speaker goes beyond the target phonology or not. We suggest that two levels of decision-making are needed here: The first decision needed is whether the speaker for any particular error is using a sound from within or outside the target system; the second is whether the realization results in a loss of contrastivity or not» (p. 297).

Ball, M. J. y Müller, N. (2005). Phonetics for communication disorders. Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315805573
(Fuente de la imagen: Martin J. Ball. (s. f.). https://martinjball.webs.com)
(Fuente de la imagen: Nicole Müller [Perfil en ResearchGate]. (s. f.). ResearchGate. Consultado el 18 de febrero de 2020, en https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Nicole_Mueller2)
fonetica_fonologia.jpg

Ball, M. J. y Müller, N. (2002). The use of the terms phonetics and phonology in the description of disordered speech. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 4(2), 95–108. https://doi.org/10.1080/14417040210001669321

(ing.) contraste /s/ (alveolar) ~ /ʃ/ (postalveolar) realizado como [s] (alveolar) ~ [s̱] (alveolar posteriorizada)

(ing.) /t/ (alveolar) realizado como [t̪] (dental) en todos los contextos
(ing.) contraste /s/ (alveolar) ~ /ʃ/ (postalveolar) realizado como [s] (alveolar) ~ [s] (alveolar)

(ing.) /t/ (sordo) realizado como [d] (sonoro)
(ing.) contraste /s/ (alveolar) ~ /ʃ/ (postalveolar) realizado como [s] (alveolar) ~ [ç] (palatal)

(ing.) /z/ (central) realizado como [ɮ] (lateral)
(ing.) contraste /s/ (alveolar) ~ /ʃ/ (postalveolar) realizado como [ç] (palatal) ~ [ç] (palatal)

(ing.) /v/ (labiodental) y /ð/ (dental) realizados como [β] (bilabial)

Objetivos del análisis fonológico clínico

Grunwell, P. (1987). Clinical phonology (2.a ed.). Chapman & Hall.

Método de análisis fonológico clínico

Grunwell, P. (1987). Clinical phonology (2.a ed.). Chapman & Hall.

Características del corpus para un análisis fonológico clínico

Grunwell, P. (1987). Clinical phonology (2.a ed.). Chapman & Hall.
«To sum up the points made above positively, an adequate date sample should fullfil the following criteria:

(1) be representative of the normal pronunciation patterns in both (a) system and (b) structure: i.e.
(a) the full phonemic inventory of contrastive consonant sounds.
(b) their possible combinations in clusters and sequences;
(2) take cognisance of the normal range of (a) stylistic and (b) sociolinguistic variation: i.e.
(a) contextual factors in connected speech,
(b) accent differences;
(3) be obtained from a variety of ‘talking situations’ to allow assessment of:
(a) any differences in the pronunciation of individual words in isolation and the pronunciation patterns of spontaneous conversation,
(b) the amount (if any) of variability in pronunciation patterns,
(c) the adequacy of the pronunciation patterns for normal communication (‘intelligibility of speech’),
(d) the effect (if any) of providing a ‘model for imitation’ » (pp. 55–56).

Grunwell, P. (1987). Clinical phonology (2.a ed.). Chapman & Hall.
«Thus the data sample should:

(1) contain a representative sampling of the different types of phonemes and phonotactic structures that constitute the target phonological system;
(2) be large enough to contain more than one token of several (preferably all) target-types to ensure that any variability in pronunciation can be detected;
(3) be representative of the speaker, and therefore obtained through a variety of relatively natural ‘talking situations’; any non-spontaneous (i.e. repeated or imitated) utterances must be identified;
(4) be glossable: any utterances whose intended meaning and therefore normal pronunciation are not known are usually not amenable to assessment; this criterion can often restrict the range of situations in which data can be obtained from disordered speakers and thus impose constraints on the fulfilment of requirement (3);
(5) be recorded in such a way as to facilitate a detailed and comprehensive phonological analysis, whose validity can be checked by another analist … the whole sample should be recorded in phonetic transcription, which should contain as much detail as possible about the pronunciation used, that is as detailed impressionistic transcription as is within the abilities of the transcriber» (p. 266).

Grunwell, P. (1987). Clinical phonology (2.a ed.). Chapman & Hall.

Fonología clínica

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El ámbito de la fonética clínica
Joaquim Llisterri, Departament de Filologia Espanyola, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

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