Acoustic Phonetics
Bibliography


Acoustic phonetics

General phonetics


General textbooks

Borden, G. J., & Harris, K. S. (1980). Speech science primer. Physiology, acoustics and perception of speech. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Borden, G. J., Harris, K. S., & Raphael, L. J. (1994). Speech science primer. Physiology, acoustics and perception of speech (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (Original work published 1980)

Hayward, K. (2000). Experimental phonetics. An introduction. Harlow: Longman.

Hewlett, N., & Beck, J. (2006). An introduction to the science of phonetics. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Johnson, K. (1997). Acoustic and auditory phonetics. Oxford: Blackwell.

Johnson, K. (2003). Acoustic and auditory phonetics (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell. (Original work published 1997)

Johnson, K. (2011). Acoustic and auditory phonetics (3rd ed.). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. (Original work published 1997)

Ladefoged, P. (2003). Phonetic data analysis. An introduction to fieldwork and instrumental techniques. Oxford: Blackwell.

Ladefoged, P. (2006). A course in phonetics (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thompsom Wadsworth. (Original work published 1975)
Website: http://www.phonetics.ucla.edu/course/contents.html

Ladefoged, P., & Johnson, K. (2011). A course in phonetics (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. (Original work published 1975)
Website: https://corpus.linguistics.berkeley.edu/acip/

Landercy, A., & Renard, R. (1977). Éléments de phonétique. Mons - Bruxelles: Centre International de Phonétique Appliquée - Didier.

Lieberman, P. (1977). Speech physiology and acoustic phonetics. New York: Macmillan.

Lieberman, P., & Blumstein, S. E. (1988). Speech physiology, speech perception and acoustic phonetics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pickett, J. M. (1980). The sounds of speech communication. A primer of acoustic phonetics and speech perception. Baltimore - Austin: University Park Press - Pro-Ed.

Pickett, J. M. (1999). The acoustics of speech communication: Fundamentals, speech perception, theory and technology. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Raphael, L. J., Borden, G. J., & Harris, K. S. (2007). Speech science primer. Physiology, acoustics and perception of speech (5th ed.). Baltimore, MD - Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (Original work published 1980)

Raphael, L. J., Borden, G. J., & Harris, K. S. (2011). Speech science primer. Physiology, acoustics and perception of speech (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (Original work published 1980)

Reetz, H. & Jongman, A. (2009). Phonetics: Transcription, production, acoustics, and perception. Chichester, UK - Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Website: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/phonetics/

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Acoustic phonetics textbooks


= Recommended introductory/general reading


= Recommended advanced reading

Baart, J. L. G. (2010). A field manual of acoustic phonetics. Dallas, TX: SIL International.

1.- Introduction; 2.- Speech Waves; 3.- Sound Spectrograms and Spectra; 4.- Voice and Aspiration; 5.- Prosody.


Barbosa, P. A., & Madureira, S. (2015). Manual de fonética acústica experimental. Aplicações a dados do português. São Paulo: Cortez.

I.- Aspectos teóricos e metodológicos em Fonética Acústica; 1.- Elementos de produção da fala; 2.- Som e onda sonora; 3.- Teoria Acústica de produção da fala; 4.- Técnicas de anàlise acústica; 5.- Experimentação em Fonética Acústica.

Boë, L. J. (1972). Introduction à la phonétique acoustique. Grenoble: Institut de Phonétique.

Borzone de Manrique, A. M. (1980). Manual de fonética acústica. Buenos Aires: Hachette.

I.- Las ondas sonoras; II.- Mecanismos de producción de los sonidos del habla; III.- Técnicas de análisis y síntesis del habla; IV.- Análisis acústico de los sonidos vocálicos; V.- Análisis acústico de sonidos consonánticos; Apéndice I: Patología del habla; Identificación del hablante; Apéndice 2.- Fonética y fonología.

Ferrero, F., Genre, A., Böe, L. J., & Contini, M. (1979). Nozioni di fonetica acustica. Torino: Edizioni Omega.

I.- Nozioni di acustica fisica; II.- Nozioni di psicoacustica; III.- Teoria acustica della produzione della parola; IV.- Strumentazione per misurazioni acustiche; V.- Tratti distintivi e caratteristiche acustiche dei fonemi italiani.

Fry, D. B. (1979). The physics of speech. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

1.- The speech chain; 2.- The generation of sound; 3.- The propagation of sound waves; 4.- Absorption and reflection of sound energy; 5.- Free and forced vibrations: resonance; 6.- The speech mechanism as sound generator; 7.- The vocal tract; 8.- Periodic and aperiodic sounds; 9.- Acoustic analysis: the sound spectrograph; 10.- Acoustic features of English sounds; 11.- Acoustic cues for the recognition of speech sounds.

Harrington, J., & Cassidy, S. (1999). Techniques in speech acoustics. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

1.- The scope of speech acoustics; 2.- The physics of speeech; 3.- The acoustic theory of speech production; 4.- Segmental and prosodic cues; 5.- Time-domain analysis; 6.- Frequency-domain analysis; 7.- Digital formant synthesis; 7.- Linear prediction of speech; 9.- Classification of speech data.

Harrington, J. (2010). Phonetic analysis of speech corpora. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Retrieved from http://phonetik.uni-muenchen.de/~jmh/research/pasc010808/pasc.pdf

1.- Using Speech Corpora in Phonetics Research; 2.- Some Tools for Building and Querying Annotated Speech Databases; 3.- Applying Routines for Speech Signal Processing; 4.- Querying Annotation Structures; 5.- An Introduction to Speech Data Analysis in R: A Study of an EMA Database; 6.- Analysis of Formants and Formant Transitions; 7.- Electropalatography; 8.- Spectral Analysis; 9.- Classification.


Kent, R. D., & Read, C. (1992). The acoustic analysis of speech. London - San Diego: Whurr Publishers - Singular Publishing Group.

1.- Introduction to the study of speech acoustics; 2.- Acoustic theory of speech production; 3.- Introduction to the acoustic analysis of speech; 4.- Modern analytic techniques; 5,.- The acoustic characteristics of vowels and diphthongs; 6.- The acoustic characteristics of consonants; 7.- Acoustic effects of context and speaker; 8.- Speech synthesis.


Kent, R. D., & Read, C. (2002). The acoustic analysis of speech (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

1.- Introduction to the study of speech acoustics; 2.- The acoustic theory of speech production; 3.- Introduction to the acoustic analysis of speech; 4.- The acoustic characteristics of vowels and diphthongs; 5.- The acoustic characteristics of consonants; 6.- The acoustic correlates of speaker characteristics; 7.- Suprasegmental properties of speech; 8.- Speech synthesis.

Ladefoged, P. (1962). Elements of acoustic phonetics. Chicago - London: The University of Chicago Press.

1.- Sound waves; 2.- Loudness and pitch; 3.- Quality; 4.- Wave analysis; 5.- Resonance; 6.- Hearing; 7.- The production of speech; Appendix 1: Glossary; Appendix 2: Annotated bibliography.


Ladefoged, P. (1996). Elements of acoustic phonetics (2nd ed.). Chicago - London: The University of Chicago Press. (Original work published 1962)

1.- Sound waves; 2.- Loudness and pitch; 3.- Quality; 4.- Wave analysis; 5.- Resonance; 6.- Hearing; 7.- The production of speech; 8.- Resonances of the vocal tract; 9.- Digital speech processing; 10.- Fourier analysis; 11.- Dgital filters and LPC analysis.

Martin, P. (2008). Phonétique acoustique. Introduction à l’analyse acoustique de la parole. Paris: Armand Colin.

1.- Le son; 2.- L’enregistrement des sons; 3.- La production des sons de la parole; 4.- La représentation harmonique; 5.- Analyse par modèle source-filtre; 6.- Spectrogrammes; 7.- La fréquence fondamentale; 8.- Modèles articulatoires; 9.- Pratiques d’analyse.

Mora, E., y Martínez Matos, H. (Eds.). (2015). Análisis acstico de los sonidos del español venezolano. Mérida: Editorial Universidad de Los Andes, Laboratorio de Fonética. Consultado en http://www.bdigital.ula.ve/busquedas/DocumentoRedi.jsp?file=33800&type=ArchivoDocumento&view=pdf&docu=27013&col=11

1.- La fonética acústica (Elsa Mora); 2.- Vocales y glides (Darcy Rojas y Emmanoelia Palma); 3.- Consonantes oclusivas (Hernán Martínez y Gabriel Lamuño); 4.- Consonantes fricativas, aproximantes y africadas (Nelson Rojas y María Fernanda Fernández); 5.- Consonantes nasales (Andrés Algara y Alessio Chinellato); 6.- Consonantes líquidas laterales y vibrantes (María Alejandra Blondet, Darcy Rojas y Diana Lee Briceño)

Neppert, J., & Pétursson, M. (1986). Elemente einer akustischen phonetik (2nd ed.). Hamburg: Helmut Buske. (Original work published 1984)

I.- Akustische und psychoakustische Grundlagen; II.- Registrieren und Interpretieren von Sprachschall; III.- Vokale; IV.- Prosodische oder suprasegmentale Merkmale; V.- Akustische Besonderheiten der Konsonanten; VI.- Die Stimmhaftigkeit; VII.- Der lineare Sprechverlauf; VIII.- Überlick über die akustischen Indizen der Sprachperzeption; IX.- Perzeptionstheorien.

Quilis, A. (1981). Fonética acústica de la lengua española. Madrid: Gredos.

I.- Introducción; II.- Acústica del sonido; III.- El mecanismo de la audición y la percepción del sonido; IV.- Métodos electroacústicos aplicados a la investigación fonética; V.- Los rasgos distintivos; VI.- Vocales; VII.- Explosivas; VIII.- Fricativas; IX.- Africadas; X.- Líquidas; XI.- La sílaba; XII.- El acento; XIII.- La entonación; XIV.- La entonación española.

Román, D. (2000). Manual de introducción al estudio fonético y fonológico. Con especial énfasis en el análisis acústico del habla. Santiago de Chile: Departamento de Ciencias del Lenguaje, Instituto de Letras, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Retrieved from http://www.domingo-roman.net/Documentos/Manual_de_introducci_n.pdf

1.- Vocabulario básico de fonética y fonología; 2.- El análisis acústico del habla; 3.- Los fonemas del español; 4.- Algunos alófonos; 5.- La sílaba; 6.- Entonación; 7.- Ejercicios finales; 8.- Bibliografía de profundización.

Román, D. (2011). Manual para el análisis fonético acústico. Santiago de Chile: Pfeiffer.

1.- ¿Qué significa hacer Fonética Acústica hoy día?; 2.- Elementos necesarios; 3.- Sonido digital y sonido analógico; 4.- La grabación; 5.- Edición de las señales; 6.- Etiquetar una señal; 7.- ¿Cómo hacer espectrogramas?; 8.- Análisis temporal; 9.- Análisis de formantes; 10.- Análisis del tono (pitch); 11.- Gráficos.

Stevens, K. N. (1998). Acoustic phonetics. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

1.- Anatomy and Physiology of Speech Production; 2.- Source Mechanisms; 3.- Basic Acoustics of Vocal Tract Resonators; 4.- Auditory Processing of Speechlike Sounds; 5.- Phonological Representation of Utterances; 6.- Vowels: Acoustic Events with a Relatively Open Vocal Tract; 7.- The Basic Stop Consonants: Bursts and Forman Transitions; 8.- Obstruent Consonants; 9.- Sonorant Consonants; 10.- Some Influences of Context of Speech Sound Production. arrow_gray_up

General works


= Recommended introductory/general reading


= Recommended advanced reading


Boersma, P. (2014). Acoustic analysis. In R. J. Podesva & D. Sharma (Eds.), Research methods in linguistics (pp. 375-396). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11245/2.157339


Ellis, D. P. W. (2010). An introduction to signal processing for speech. In W. J. Hardcastle, J. Laver, & F. E. Gibbon (Eds.), The handbook of phonetic sciences (2nd ed.). (pp. 757-80). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Fant, G. (2004). Acoustic analysis and synthesis of speech with applications to Swedish (excerpts). In Speech acoustics and phonetics: Selected writings. (pp. 18-28). Dordrecht: Kluwer. (Original work published 1959)

Fant, G. (1973). Acoustic description and classification of phonetic units. In Speech sounds and features. (pp. 32-83). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (Original work published 1959)

Fant, G. (1973). The acoustics of speech. In Speech sounds and features. (pp. 3-16). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (Original work published 1961)

Fant, G. (1973). Descriptive analysis of the acoustic aspects of speech. In Speech sounds and features. (pp. 17-31). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (Original work published 1962)

Fant, G. (1973). Speech sounds and features. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Fant, G. (1967). Descriptive analysis of the acoustic aspects of speech. In I. Lehiste (Ed.), Readings in acoustic phonetics. (pp. 93-108). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (Original work published 1962)

Fant, G. (2004). Descriptive analysis of the acoustic aspects of speech. In Speech acoustics and phonetics: Selected writings. (pp. 145-61). Dordrecht: Kluwer. (Original work published 1962)

Fant, G. (1968). Analysis and synthesis of the speech processes. In B. Malmberg (Ed.), Manual of phonetics. (pp. 173-277). Amsterdam: North Holland.

Fant, G. (2004). Acoustical analysis of speech. In Speech acoustics and phonetics: Selected writings. (pp. 162-74). Dordrecht: Kluwer. (Original work published 1997)

Fant, G. (2004). Speech acoustics and phonetics: Selected writings. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Fry, D. B. (Ed). (1976). Acoustic phonetis. A course of basic readings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Fujimura, O., & Erickson, D. (1997). Acoustic phonetics. In W. J. Hardcastle & J. Laver (Eds.), The handbook of phonetic sciences. (pp. 65-115). Oxford: Blackwell.


Harrington, J. (2010). Acoustic phonetics. In W. J. Hardcastle, J. Laver, & F. E. Gibbon (Eds.), The handbook of phonetic sciences (2nd ed.). (pp. 81-129). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Retrieved from http://www.phonetik.uni-muenchen.de/~jmh/research/papers/acoustics2.pdf

Heinz, J. M. (1974). Speech acoustics. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Current trends in linguistics: Vol. 12, 4 . (pp. 2242-80). The Hague: Mouton.

Javkin, H. R. (1996). Speech analysis and syntesis. In N. J. Lass (Ed.), Principles of experimental phonetics. (pp. 245-76). St. Louis: Mosby.

Keller, E. (1994). Fundamentals of phonetic science. In E. Keller (Ed.), Fundamentals of speech synthesis and speech recognition. Basic concepts, state of the art and future challenges. (pp. 5-22). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Kent, R. D., & Kim, Y. (2008). Acoustic analysis of speech. In M. J. Ball, M. R. Perkins, N. Müller, & S. Howard (Eds.), Handbook of clinical linguistics (pp. 396-416). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

Lehiste, I. (Ed). (1967). Readings in acoustic phonetics. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Liénard, J. S. (1977). Les processus de la communication parlée. Introduction à l´analyse et à la synthèse de la parole. Paris: Masson.

Llisterri, J., Aguilar, L., Garrido, J. M., Machuca, M. J., Marín, R., de la Mota, C., & Ríos, A. (1999). Fonética y tecnologías del habla. In J. M. Blecua, G. Clavería, C. Sánchez, & J. Torruella (Eds.), Filología e informática. Nuevas tecnologías en los estudios lingüísticos. (pp. 449-79). Barcelona: Seminari de Filologia i Informàtica, Departament de Filologia Espanyola, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona - Editorial Milenio. Retrieved from http://liceu.uab.cat/~joaquim/publicacions/Fonetica_TecnolHabla.pdf

Magno Caldognetto, E., Abatti, A., & Dossi, L. (1971). Introduzione all’analisi ed alla sintesi strumentale della parola. Bologna: Pàtron.

Minifie, F. D. (1973). Speech acoustics. In F. D. Minifie, T. J. Hixon, & F. Williams (Eds.), Normal aspects of speech, hearing and language. (pp. 235-84). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Quilis, A. (1980). Álbum de fonética acústica (2a ed.). Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. (Original work published 1972)

Rosen, S., & Howell, P. (1991). Signals and systems for speech and hearing. London: Academic Press.


Rosen, S. & Howell, P. (2010). Signals and systems for speech and hearing (2nd ed.). Bingley: Emerald.

Shadle, C. H. (2006). Phonetics, Acoustic. In K. Brown (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics (2nd ed., pp. 442-460). Oxford: Elsevier. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/00001-8

Shoup, J. E., & Pfeifer, L. L. (1976). Acoustic characteristics of speech sounds. In N. J. Lass (Ed.), Contemporary issues in experimental phonetics. (pp. 171-224). New York: Academic Press.

Small, A. . M. (1973). Acoustics. In F. D. Minifie, T. J. Hixon, & F. WIlliams (Eds.), Normal aspects of speech, hearing and language. (pp. 11-72). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Titze, I. R., Baken, R. J., Bozeman, K. W., Granqvist, S., Henrich, N., Herbst, C. T., … Wolfe, J. (2015). Toward a consensus on symbolic notation of harmonics, resonances, and formants in vocalization. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 137(5), 3005-3007. doi:10.1121/1.4919349

Winckel, F. (1968). Acoustical foundations of phonetics. In B. Malmberg (Ed.), Manual of phonetics. (pp. 17-44). Amsterdam: North Holland.

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Acoustic theory of speech production

Carré, R. (2004). From an acoustic tube to speech production. Speech Communication, 42(2), 227-240. doi:10.1016/j.specom.2003.12.001

Fant, G. (1956). On the predictability of formant levels and spectrum envelopes from formant frequencies. In M. Halle, H. Lunt, & H. MacLean (Eds.), For Roman Jakobson (pp. 109-120). The Hague: Mouton.

Fant, G. (1967). On the predictability of formant levels and spectrum envelopes from formant frequencies. In I. Lehiste (Ed.), Readings in acoustic phonetics (pp. 44-55). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (Original work published 1956)

Fant, G. (1960). Acoustic theory of speech production. With calculations based on X-Ray studies of Russian articulation. The Hague: Mouton.

Fant, G. (1965). Formants and cavities. In E. Zwirner & W. Bethge (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 120-141). Basel: Karger.

Fant, G. (1966). A note on vocal tract size factors and nonuniform F-pattern scalings. Speech Transmission Laboratory - Quarterly Progress and Status Report, 7(4), 22-30. Retrieved from http://www.speech.kth.se/prod/publications/files/qpsr/1966/1966_7_4_022-030.pdf

Fant, G. (1973). A note on vocal tract size factors and nonuniform F-pattern scalings. In Speech sounds and features (pp. 84-93). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (Original work published 1966)

Fant, G. (1980). The relations between area functions and the acoustic signal. Phonetica, 37(1-2), 55-86. doi:10.1159/000259983

Fant, G. (1991). The relations between area functions and the acoustic signal. In R. D. Kent, B. S. Atal, & J. L. Miller (Eds.), Papers in speech communication: Speech production (pp. 269-300). New York, NY: Acoustical Society of America. (Original work published 1980)

Fant, G. (2004). The relations between area functions and the acoustic signal. In Speech acoustics and phonetics: Selected writings (pp. 29-57). Dordrecht: Kluwer. (Original work published 1980)

Fant, G. (1986). Glottal flow: models and interaction. Journal of Phonetics, 14(3), 393-399.

Fant, G. (1991). Glottal flow: models and interaction. In R. D. Kent, B. S. Atal, & J. L. Miller (Eds.), Papers in speech communication: Speech production (pp. 139-145). New York, NY: Acoustical Society of America. (Original work published 1986)

Fant, G. (1993). Some problems in voice source analysis. Speech Communication, 13(1-2), 7-22. doi:10.1016/0167-6393(93)90055-P

Flanagan, J. L. (1958). Some properties of the glottal sound source. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 1(2), 99-116. doi:10.1044/jshr.0102.99

Flanagan, J. L. (1976). Some properties of the glottal sound source. In D. B. Fry (Ed.), Acoustic phonetics (pp. 31-51). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Original work published 1958)

Flanagan, J. L. (1965). Speech analysis, synthesis and perception. Heidelberg: Springer.

Flanagan, J. L. (1972). Speech analysis, synthesis and perception (2nd expand). Heidelberg: Springer. (Original work published 1965)

Flanagan, J. L., Allen, J. B., & Hasegawa-Johnson, M. A. (2008). Speech analysis, synthesis and perception (3rd ed.). New York: Springer. (Original work published 1965)

Gauffin, J., & Sundberg, J. (1989). Spectral correlates of glottal voice source waveform characteristics. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 32(3), 556-565. doi:10.1044/jshr.3203.556

Gauffin, J., & Sundberg, J. (1991). Spectral correlates of glottal voice source waveform characteristics. In R. D. Kent, B. S. Atal, & J. L. Miller (Eds.), Papers in speech communication: Speech production (pp. 147-156). New York: Acoustical Society of America. (Original work published 1989)

Lindblom, B., & Sundberg, J. (1971). Acoustical consequences of lip, tongue, jaw, and larynx movement. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 50(4B), 1166-1179. doi:10.1121/1.1912750

Lindblom, B., & Sundberg, J. (1991). Acoustical consequences of lip, tongue, jaw, and larynx movement. In R. D. Kent, B. S. Atal, & J. L. Miller (Eds.), Papers in speech communication: Speech production (pp. 329-342). New York, NY: Acoustical Society of America. (Original work published 1971)

Scully, C., & Whiteside, C. (1992). Speech production modelling and speech synthesis. In P. Roach (Ed.), Computing in linguistics and phonetics. Introductory readings (pp. 73-84). London: Academic Press.

Titze, I. R., & Talkin, D. T. (1979). A theoretical study of the effects of various laryngeal configurations on the acoustics of phonation. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 66(1), 60. doi:10.1121/1.382973

Titze, I. R., & Talkin, D. T. (1991). A theoretical study of the effects of various laryngeal configurations on the acoustics of phonation. In R. D. Kent, B. S. Atal, & J. L. Miller (Eds.), Papers in speech communication: Speech production (pp. 251-265). New York, NY: Acoustical Society of America. (Original work published 1979)

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Acoustic invariance

Blumstein, S. E. (1986). Acoustic invariance in speech. In J. S. Perkell & D. H. Klatt (Eds.), Invariance and variability in speech processes (pp. 178-193). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Blumstein, S. E., & Stevens, K. N. (1980). Perceptual invariance and onset spectra for stop consonants in different vowel environments. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 67(2), 648-662. doi:10.1121/1.383890

Blumstein, S. E., & Stevens, K. N. (1981). Phonetic features and acoustic invariance in speech. Cognition, 10(1-3), 25-32. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(81)90021-4

Blumstein, S. E., & Stevens, K. N. (1985). On some issues in the pursuit of acoustic invariance in speech: A reply to Lisker. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 77(3), 1203-1204. doi:10.1121/1.392186

Hawkins, S. (1989). Reconciling trading relations and acoustic invariance. In Eurospeech 1989. Proceedings of the 1st European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Vol. 2, pp. 682-685). Paris, France. 26-29 September, 1989. Retrieved from http://www.isca-speech.org/archive/eurospeech_1989/e89_2682.html

Liénard, J.-S. (1995). From speech variability to pattern processing: a non-reductive view of speech processing. In C. Sorin, J. Mariani, H. Meloni, & J. Schoentgen (Eds.), Levels in speech communication. Relations and interactions. A tribute to Max Wajskop / Hommage à Max Wajskop (pp. 37-148). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Lisker, L. (1985). The pursuit of invariance in speech signals. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 77(3), 1199-1202. doi:10.1121/1.392185

Pisoni, D. B. (1986). Contextual variability and the problem of acoustic-phonetic invariance in speech. In J. S. Perkell & D. H. Klatt (Eds.), Invariance and variability in speech processes (pp. 154-160). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Pols, L. C. W. (1986). Variation in interaction in speech. In J. S. Perkell & D. H. Klatt (Eds.), Invariance and variability in speech processes (pp. 140-154). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Repp, B. H. (1981). On levels of description in speech research. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 69(5), 1462-1464. doi:10.1121/1.385779

Stevens, K. N. (1972). The quantal nature of speech: Evidence from articulatory-acoustic data. In P. B. Denes & E. E. David (Eds.), Human communication. A unified view (pp. 51-66). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Stevens, K. N. (1980). Acoustic correlates of some phonetic categories. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 68(3), 836-842. doi:10.1121/1.384823

Stevens, K. N. (1985). Spectral prominences and phonetic distinctions in language. Speech Communication, 4(1-3), 137-144. doi:10.1016/0167-6393(85)90041-X

Stevens, K. N. (1989). On the quantal nature of speech. Journal of Phonetics, 17(1-2), 3-45.

Stevens, K. N. (1991). On the quantal nature of speech. In R. D. Kent, B. S. Atal, & J. L. Miller (Eds.), Papers in speech communication: Speech production (pp. 357-399). New York, NY: Acoustical Society of America. (Original work published 1989)

Stevens, K. N., & Blumstein, S. E. (1981). The search for invariant acoustic correlates of phonetic features. In P. D. Eimas & J. L. Miller (Eds.), Perspectives in the study of speech (pp. 1-38). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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Acoustic variability

Chollet, G., Choukri, K., & Tubach, J. P. (1990). Experiments in speech analysis and recognition: tackling the variability of speech. In W. A. Ainsworth (Ed.), Advances in speech, hearing and language processing (Vol. 1, pp. 79-106). London: JAI Press.

Labov, W. (1986). Sources of inherent variation in the speech process. In J. S. Perkell & D. H. Klatt (Eds.), Invariance and variability in speech processes (pp. 402-422). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Stevens, K. N. (1972). Sources of inter- and intra- speaker variability in the acoustic properties of speech sounds. In A. Rigault & R. Charbonneau (Eds.), Actes du septième Congrès International des Sciences Phonétiques (pp. 206-232). Le Haye - Paris: Mouton.

Intra- and inter-speaker variability

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Gender and age related variability

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Acoustic properties of segmental elements

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Lindblom, B. (1986). Phonetic universals in vowel systems. In J. J. Ohala, & J. J. Jaeger (Eds.), Experimental phonology. (pp. 13-44). New York: Academic Press.

Llisterri, J. (1989). Los sistemas vocálicos: Tipología, universales y explicación fonética. Anuario del Seminario de Filología Vasca "Julio de Urquijo". International Journal of Basque Linguistics and Philology, 23(2), 435-446. Retrieved from http://liceu.uab.cat/~joaquim/publicacions/Llisterri_89_Sistemas_Vocalicos.pdf

 Madrid Servín, E. A., & Marín Rodríguez, M. A. (2001). Estructura formántica de las vocales del español de la ciudad de México. In E. Herrera Zendejas (Ed.), Temas de fonética instrumental. (pp. 13-38). México, D.F.: El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Lingüísticos y Literarios.

Martí, J. (1984). Paràmetres vocàlics del català. Folia Phonetica, 1, 23-43.

Morrison, G. S. (2004). An acoustical and statistical analysis of Spanish mid-vowel allophones. Estudios de Fonética Experimental, 13, 11-37. Retrieved from http://www.raco.cat/index.php/EFE/article/view/140010

Nadeu, M. (2014). Stress- and speech rate-induced vowel quality variation in Catalan and Spanish. Journal of Phonetics, 46(1), 1-22. doi:10.1016/j.wocn.2014.05.003

Peterson, G. E., & Barney, H. L. (1952). Control methods used in a study of the vowels. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 24(2), 175-184. doi:10.1121/1.1906875

Peterson, G. E., & Barney, H. L. (1967). Control methods used in a study of vowels. In I. Lehiste (Ed.), Readings in acoustic phonetics. (pp. 118-27). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (Original work published 1952)

Peterson, G. E., & Barney, H. L. (1976). Control methods used in a study of vowels. In D. B. Fry (Ed.), Acoustic phonetis. A course of basic readings. (pp. 104-22). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Original work published 1952)

Peterson, G. E., & Barney, H. L. (1991). Control methods used in a study of vowels. In R. D. Kent, B. S. Atal, & J. L. Miller (Eds.), Papers in speech communication: Speech production. (pp. 585-94). New York: The Acoustical Society of America. (Original work published 1952)

Pla, J. (1995). L’obertura de la [ə] a Barcelona: El xava i altres varietats. In M. T. Turell (Ed.), La sociolingüística de la variació. (pp. 139-64). Barcelona: Promociones y Publicaciones Universitarias.

Quilis, A., & Esgueva, M. (1983). Realización de los fonemas vocálicos españoles en posición fonética normal. In M. Esgueva, & M. Cantarero (Eds.), Estudios de fonética I. (pp. 137-252). Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas.

Ramón, J. L., Sprekelsen, C., Marín, M., González, M., & Rubio, M. V. (1979). Método de estudio de las frecuencias fundamentales y análisis espectrográfico de los dos primeros fundamentales de las vocales castellanas emitidas por cien sujetos normales. Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española, 30, 399-414.

Recasens, D., & Espinosa, A. (2006). Dispersion and variability of Catalan vowels. Speech Communication, 48(6), 645-666. doi:10.1016/j.specom.2005.09.011

Recasens, D., & Espinosa, A. (2009). Dispersion and variability in Catalan five and six peripheral vowel systems. Speech Communication, 51(3), 240-258. doi:10.1016/j.specom.2008.09.002

Solà, J. (1988). Efectes co-articulatoris de les consonants palatals sobre la vocal neutra del català central. Estudios de Fonética Experimental, 3, 135-156. Retrieved from http://www.raco.cat/index.php/EFE/article/view/144225

Intrinsic fundamental frequency of vowels

Connell, B. (2002). Tone languages and the universality of intrinsic F0: evidence from Africa. Journal of Phonetics, 30(1), 101-129. doi:10.1006/jpho.2001.0156

Costa, F. (2004). Intrinsic prosodic properties of stressed vowels in European Portuguese. In Speech prosody 2004. (pp. 53-6). Nara, Japan, March 23-26, 2004. Retrieved from http://sprosig.isle.illinois.edu/sp2004/PDF/Costa.pdf

Delos, M., Guerin, B., Mrayati, M., & Carré, R. (1976). Study of intrinsic pitch of vowels. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 59(S1), S72. doi:10.1121/1.2002862

Di Cristo, A., Hirst, D., & Nishinuma, Y. (1979). L’estimation de la F0 intrinsèque des voyelles: Étude comparative. Travaux de l’Institut de Phonétique d’Aix, 6, 147-176.

Ewan, W. G., & Ohala, J. J. (1979). Can intrinsic vowel F0 be explained by source/tract coupling? The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 66(2), 358-362. doi:10.1121/1.383669

Gandour, J., & Weinberg, B. (1980). On the relationship between vowel height and fundamental frequency: Evidence from esophageal speech. Phonetica, 37(5-6), 344-354. doi:10.1159/000260002

Hata, K. (1986). Intrinsic pitch of vowels in read speech at different speech rates. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 80(S1), S50. doi:10.1121/1.2023839

Herrasti, L., & Meneses, S. (2001). Tonía intrínseca de las vocales e influencia de las consonantes oclusivas: Estudio sobre el español de la ciudad de México. In E. Herrera Zendejas (Ed.), Temas de fonética instrumental. (pp. 39-58). México, D.F.: El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Lingüísticos y Literarios.

Heuft, B., & Portele, T. (1995). Intrinsic prosodic values and segmental contex. In Eurospeech 1995. Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology. (pp. 2077-80). Madrid, Spain, September 18-21, 1995. Retrieved from http://www.isca-speech.org/archive/eurospeech_1995/e95_2077.html

Koizumi, T., Taniguchi, S., & Hiromitsu, S. (1985). Glottal source-vocal tract interaction. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 78(5), 1541-1547. doi:10.1121/1.392789

Kosiel, U. (1968). Relations between vowel spectra and fundamental frequency in Polish. In W. Jassem (Ed.), Speech analysis and synthesis (Vol. 1, pp. 69-92). Warsaw: Polish Academy of Sciences.

Ladd, D. R., & Silverman, K. E. A. (1984). Vowel intrinsic pitch in connected speech. Phonetica, 41(1), 31-40. doi:10.1159/000261708

Mateo, A. (1988). Experimento sobre el tono intrínseco de las vocales castellanas. Estudios de Fonética Experimental, 3, 157-180. Retrieved from http://www.raco.cat/index.php/EFE/article/view/144226

Ohala, J. J., & Eukel, B. W. (1976). Explaining the intrinsic pitch of vowels. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 60(S1), S44. doi:10.1121/1.2003351

Ohala, J. J., & Eukel, B. W. (1986). Explaining the intrinsic pitch of vowels. In R. Channon & L. Shockey (Eds.), In honor of Ilse Lehiste /Ilse Lehiste Pühendusteos (pp. 207-215). Dordrecht: Foris. Retrieved from http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/~ohala/papers/explaining_intrinsic_pitch.pdf

Pape, D., & Mooshammer, C. (2004). Intrinsic pitch in German - Examining the whole fundamental frequency contour of the vowel. In Proceedings of the Joint Congress CFA/DAGA’04. Strasbourg, France.22-25 March, 2004. Retrieved from http://phonetics.danielpape.info/paper/pape_dag.pdf

Petersen, N. R. (1978). Intrinsic fundamental frequency of Danish vowels. Journal of Phonetics, 6(3), 177-189.

Rodríguez Cadena, Y. (2003). El efecto de la aspiración sobre la tonía intrínseca de las vocales en el español del Caribe. In P. Martín Butragueño, & E. Herrera Zendejas (Eds.), La tonía. Dimensiones fonéticas y fonológicas. (pp. 75-94). México, D.F.: El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Lingüísticos y Literarios.

Shadle, C. H. (1985). Intrinsic fundamental frequency of vowels in sentence context. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 78(5), 1562-1567. doi:10.1121/1.392792

Steele, S. A. (1986). Interaction of vowel F0 and prosody. Phonetica, 43(1-3), 92-105. doi:10.1159/000261763

Verbrugge, R. R., & Shankweiler, D. P. (1977). Prosodic information for vowel identity. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 61(S1), S39. doi:10.1121/1.2015621

Verhoeven, J., & van Hoof, S. (2007). Intrinsic vowel pitch in ducht and Arabic. In ICPhS 2007. Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of phonetic sciences. (pp. 1785-8). Saarbrücken, Germany, 6-10 August. 2007. Retrieved from http://www.icphs2007.de/conference/Papers/1198/1198.pdf

Whalen, D. H., & Levitt, A. G. (1995). The universality of intrinsic F0 of vowels. Journal of Phonetics, 23(3), 349-366. doi:10.1016/S0095-4470(95)80165-0

Whalen, D. F., Gick, B., Kumada, M., & Honda, K. (1999). Cricothyroid activity in high and low vowels: exploring the automaticity of intrinsic F0. Journal of Phonetics, 27(2), 125-142. doi:10.1006/jpho.1999.0091

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Oral stops

Blumstein, S. E., & Stevens, K. N. (1979). Acoustic invariance in speech production: Evidence from measurements of the spectral characteristics of stop consonants. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 66(4), 1001-1017. doi:10.1121/1.383319

Byrd, D. (1993). 54,000 American stops. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 83, 97-116. Retrieved from http://www-rcf.usc.edu/~dbyrd/Byrd54_UCLAWPP.pdf

Carrasco, P., Hualde, J. I., & Simonet, M. (2012). Dialectal differences in Spanish voiced obstruent allophony: Costa Rican versus Iberian Spanish. Phonetica, 69(3), 149-179. doi:10.1159/000345199

Cho, T., & Ladefoged, P. (1999). Variation and universals in VOT: evidence from 18 languages. Journal of Phonetics, 27(2), 207-229. doi:10.1006/jpho.1999.0094

Durand, P. (1985). Variabilité acoustique et invariance en français: consonnes occlusives et voyelles. Paris: Éditions du CNRS.

Fant, G. (1969). Stops in CV-syllables. STL-QPSR. Speech, Music and Hearing - Quarterly Progress and Status Report, 10(4), 1-25. Retrieved from http://www.speech.kth.se/prod/publications/files/qpsr/1969/1969_10_4_001-025.pdf

Fant, G. (1973). Stops in CV-syllables. In Speech sounds and features (pp. 110-139). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (Original work published 1969)

González, C. (2002). Phonetic variation in voiced obstruents in North-Central Peninsular Spanish. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 32(1), 17-31. doi:10.1017/S0025100302000129

Halle, M., Hughes, G. W., & Radley, J.-P. A. (1957). Acoustic properties of stop consonants. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 29(1), 107-116. doi:10.1121/1.1908634

Halle, M., Hughes, G. W., & Radley, J.-P. A. (1967). Acoustic properties of stop consonants. In I. Lehiste (Ed.), Readings in acoustic phonetics (pp. 170-179). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (Original work published 1957)

Kewley-Port, D. (1982). Measurement of formant transitions in naturally produced stop consonant-vowel syllables. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 72(2), 379-389. doi:10.1121/1.388081

Lisker, L., & Abramson, A. S. (1964). A cross-language study of voicing in initial stops: Acoustical measurements. Word, 20(3), 384-422. doi:10.1080/00437956.1964.11659830

Lisker, L., & Abramson, A. S. (1991). A cross-language study of voicing in initial stops: Acoustical measurements. In R. D. Kent, B. S. Atal, & J. L. Miller (Eds.), Papers in speech communication: Speech production (pp. 527-565). New York: The Acoustical Society of America. (Original work published 1964)

Machuca, M. J. (1997). Las obstruyentes no continuas del español: relaciones entre las categorías fonéticas y fonológicas en habla espontánea (Tesis doctoral). Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10803/4887

Öhman, S. E. G. (1966). Coarticulation in VCV utterances: Spectrographic measurements. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 39(1), 151-168. doi:10.1121/1.1909864

Öhman, S. E. G. (1991). Coarticulation in VCV utterances: Spectrographic measurements. In R. D. Kent, B. S. Atal, & J. L. Miller (Eds.), Papers in speech communication: Speech production (pp. 567-584). New York, NY: Acoustical Society of America. (Original work published 1966)

Rosner, B. S., López-Bascuas, L. E., García-Albea, J. E., & Fahey, R. P. (2000). Voice-onset times for Castilian Spanish initial stops. Journal of Phonetics, 28(2), 217-224. doi:10.1006/jpho.2000.0113

Soto Barba, J., & Valdivieso, H. (1999). Caracterización fonético-acústica de la serie de consonantes /p -t - k/ vs. /b - d - g/. Onomázein. Revista de Lingüística, Filología y Traducción, 4, 125-133. Retrieved from http://www.onomazein.net/03_Numeros/N4/N4.html

Stevens, K. N., & Blumstein, S. E. (1978). Invariant cues for place of articulation in stop consonants. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 64(5), 1358-1368. doi:10.1121/1.382102

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Nasal stops

Albalá, M. J. (1992). Análisis y síntesis de las consonantes nasales. Revista de Filología Española, 72, 37-55. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10261/12449

Amino, K., & Arai, T. (2009). Speaker-dependent characteristics of the nasals. Forensic Science International, 185(1-3), 21-28. Retrieved from http://www.splab.net/papers/2009/2009_01.pdf

Amino, K., Sugawara, T., & Arai, T. (2006). Idiosyncrasy of nasal sounds in human speaker identification and their acoustic properties. Acoustical Science and Technology, 27(4), 233?235. Retrieved from http://www.splab.net/papers/2006/2006_03.pdf

Fernández Planas, A. M. (2012). Aspectos fonéticos del proceso de velarización en las nasales del español y del catalán. Onomázein. Revista de Lingüística, Filología y Traducción, 26, 95-129. Retrieved from http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=4419283

Fujimura, O. (1962). Analysis of nasal consonants. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 34(12), 1865-1875. doi:10.1121/1.1909142

Fujimura, O. (1967). Analysis of nasal consonants. In I. Lehiste (Ed.), Readings in acoustic phonetics (pp. 238-248). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (Original work published 1962)

Fujimura, O. (1991). Analysis of nasal consonants. In R. D. Kent, B. S. Atal, & J. L. Miller (Eds.), Papers in speech communication: Speech production (pp. 301-311). New York: The Acoustical Society of America. (Original work published 1962)

Fujimura, O., & Lindqvist, J. (1971). Sweep-tone measurements of vocal-tract characteristics. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 49(2, Part 2), 541.558. doi:10.1121/1.1912385

García, M., & Rodríguez Hourcadette, M. (1997). Estudio acústico de las consonantes nasales del español. Estudios de Fonética Experimental, 9, 37-64. Retrieved from http://www.raco.cat/index.php/EFE/article/viewArticle/144479/0

García, M., & Rodríguez Hourcadette, M. (1997). Análisis espectral de las consonantes nasales españolas. Lengua y Habla, 2(1), 87-96. Retrieved from http://erevistas.saber.ula.ve/index.php/lenguayhabla/article/viewArticle/3636

Glass, J. R. (1984). Nasal consonants and nasalized vowels: An acoustic study and recognition experiment (M.Sc. Dissertation). Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts. Retrieved from http://groups.csail.mit.edu/sls/publications/1984/JGlass_Thesis.pdf

Herrera Z, E. (2002). La asimilación de las nasales en español: un estudio instrumental. Nueva Revista de Filología Hispánica, 50(1), 1-14. Retrieved from http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=60250101

Kurowski, K., & Blumstein, S. E. (1987). Acoustic properties for place of articulation in nasal consonants. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 81(6), 1917-1927. doi:10.1121/1.394756

Kurowski, K., & Blumstein, S. E. (1993). Acoustic properties for the perception of nasal consonants. In M. K. Huffman & R. A. Krakow (Eds.), Nasals, nasalization, and the velum (pp. 197-222). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Lindqvist-Gauffin, J., & Sundberg, J. (1972). Acoustic properties of the nasal tract. STL-QPSR. Speech, Music and Hearing - Quarterly Progress and Status Report, 13(1), 13-17. Retrieved from http://www.speech.kth.se/prod/publications/files/qpsr/1972/1972_13_1_013-017.pdf

Lindqvist-Gauffin, J., & Sundberg, J. (1976). Acoustic properties of the nasal tract. Phonetica, 33(3), 161-168. doi:10.1159/000259720

Machuca, M. J. (1991). Acoustic description of the Spanish nasal consonants in continuous speech. In ICPhS 1991. Actes du 12ème Congrès International de Sciences Phonétiques (Vol. 2, pp. 414-417). Aix-en-Provence, France, 19-24 August, 1991.

Massone, M. I. (1988). Estudio acústico y perceptivo de las consonantes nasales y líquidas del español. Estudios de Fonética Experimental, 3, 13-34. Retrieved from http://www.raco.cat/index.php/EFE/article/view/144221

Ohala, J. J. (1975). Phonetic explanations for nasal sound patterns. In C. A. Ferguson, L. M. Hyman, & J. J. Ohala (Eds.), Nasalfest: Papers from a symposium on nasals and nasalization (pp. 289-316). Stanford, CA: Language Universals Project, Stanford University. Retrieved from http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/~ohala/papers/Ohala_phonetic_explanations_nasal_sound.pdf

Qi, Y., & Fox, R. A. (1992). Analysis of nasal consonants using perceptual linear prediction. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 91(3), 1718-1726. doi:10.1121/1.402451

Seitz, P. F., McCormick, M. M., Watson, I. M., & Bladon, R. A. (1990). Relational spectral features for place of articulation in nasal consonants. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 87(1), 351-358. doi:10.1121/1.399256

Tarnóczy, T. (1948). Resonance data concerning nasals, laterals and trills. Word, 4(2), 71-77. doi:10.1080/00437956.1948.11659330

Tarnóczy, T. (1967). Resonance data concerning nasals, laterals and trills. In I. Lehiste (Ed.), Readings in acoustic phonetics. (pp. 111-7). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (Original work published 1948)

Nasal and nasalized vowels

Berger, M. A. (2007). Measurement of vowel nasalization by multi-dimensional acoustic analysis (M.A. Thesis). University of Rochester, Rochester, NY. Retrieved from http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/s0788136/downloads/MA_thesis.pdf

Chen, M. Y. (1995). Acoustic parameters of nasalized vowels in hearing-impaired and normal-hearing speakers. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 98(5), 2443-2453. doi:10.1121/1.414399

Chen, M. Y. (1996). Acoustic correlates of nasality in speech (Ph.D. Thesis). Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/21436

Chen, M. Y. (1997). Acoustic correlates of English and French nasalized vowels. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 102(4), 2360-2370. doi:10.1121/1.419620

Chen, N. F., Slifka, J. L., & Stevens, K. N. (2007). Vowel nasalization in American English: Acoustic variability due to phonetic context. In ICPhS 2007. Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 905-908). Saarbrücken, Germany. 6-10 August. 2007. Retrieved from http://icphs2007.de/conference/Papers/1171/1171.pdf

Delattre, P. (1954). Les attributs acoustiques de la nasalité vocalique. Studia Linguistica, 2, 103-109.

Delattre, P. (1966). Les attributs acoustiques de la nasalité vocalique. In Studies in French and Comparative Phonetics. Selected papers in French and English (pp. 243-247). The Hague: Mouton. (Originak work published 1954)

Delvaux, V. (2002). Contrôle et connaissance phonétique: Les voyelles nasales du français (Thèse doctorale). Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles. Retrieved from http://www.ulb.ac.be/philo/phonolab/download/TheseDelvaux.pdf

Delvaux, V. (2012). Les voyelles nasales du français. Aérodynamique, articulation, acoustique et perception. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Dickson, D. R. (1962). An acoustic study of nasality. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 5(2), 103-111. doi:10.1044/jshr.0502.103

Fails, W. (2011). O grau de nasalização das vogais oronasais no português paulistano e no espanhol mexicano: Um estudo experimental comparativo. Hispania, 94(3), 443-461.

Feng, G., & Castelli, E. (1996). Some acoustic features of nasal and nasalized vowels: a target for vowel nasalization. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 99(6), 3694-3706. doi:10.1121/1.414967

Glass, J. R. (1984). Nasal consonants and nasalized vowels: An acoustic study and recognition experiment (M.Sc. Dissertation). Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts. Retrieved from http://groups.csail.mit.edu/sls/publications/1984/JGlass_Thesis.pdf

Hattori, S., Yamamoto, K., & Fujimura, O. (1958). Nasalization of vowels in relation to nasals. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 30(4), 267. doi:10.1121/1.1909563

Hawkins, S., & Stevens, K. N. (1985). Acoustic and perceptual correlates of the non-nasal--nasal distinction for vowels. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 77(4), 1560?1575. doi:10.1121/1.391999

Maeda, S. (1982). Acoustic cues for vowel nasalization: A simulation study. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 72(S1), S102. doi:10.1121/1.2019690

Maeda, S. (1982). The role of the sinus cavities in the production of nasal vowels. In ICASSP 1982. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (pp. 911-914). Paris, France. 3-5 May, 1982. doi:10.1109/ICASSP.1982.1171561

Maeda, S. (1993). Acoustics of vowel nasalization and articulatory shifts in French nasal vowels. In M. K. Huffman & R. A. Krakow (Eds.), Nasals, nasalization, and the velum (pp. 147-170). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Pruthi, T. (2007). Analysis, vocal-tract modeling and automatic detection of vowel nasalization (Ph.D. Thesis). University of Maryland, College Park, Ann Arbor, MI. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1903/4273

Pruthi, T., & Espy-Wilson, C. Y. (2004). Acoustic parameters for automatic detection of nasal manner. Speech Communication, 43(3), 225-239. doi:10.1016/j.specom.2004.06.001

Tronnier, M. (1998). Nasals and nasality in speech production. With special emphasis on methodology and Osaka Japanese. Lund: Lund University Press.

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Fricatives

Alamon, F. (1985). Anàlisi espectrogràfica dels sons fricatius i africats prepalatals de la varietat lleidatana del català Nord-Occidental (Tesi de llicenciatura). Universitat de Barcelona, Estudi General de Lleida, Lleida.

Badin, P. (1991). Fricative consonants: Acoustic and x-ray measurements. Journal of Phonetics, 19(3-4), 397-408.

Borzone de Manrique, A. M., & Massone, M. I. (1981). Acoustic analysis and perception of Spanish fricative consonants. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 69(4), 1145-1153. doi:10.1121/1.385694

Cicres, J. (2005). Anàlisi espectral de [f θ s x] en espanyol i la seva utilitat en la identificació de parlants. Interlingüística, 15(1), 291-298.

Espinosa, A., & Recasens, D. (2006). Estudi experimental de les consonants fricatives del mallorquí i del valencià. Estudis Romànics, 28, 125-150. Retrieved from http://www.raco.cat/index.php/Estudis/article/viewArticle/223269/0

Evers, V., Reetz, H., & Lahiri, A. (1998). Crosslinguistic acoustic categorization of sibilants independent of phonological status. Journal of Phonetics, 26(4), 345-370. doi:10.1006/jpho.1998.0079

Gordon, M., Barthmaier, P., & Sands, K. (2002). A cross-linguistic acoustic study of voiceless fricatives. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 32(2), 141-174. doi:10.1017/S0025100302001020

Heinz, J. M., & Stevens, K. N. (1961). On the properties of voiceless fricative consonants. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 33(5), 589-596. doi:10.1121/1.1908734

Heinz, J. M., & Stevens, K. N. (1967). On the properties of voiceless fricative consonants. In I. Lehiste (Ed.), Readings in acoustic phonetics. (pp. 220-7). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (Original work published 1961)

Hughes, G. W., & Halle, M. (1956). Spectral properties of fricative consonants. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 28(2), 303-310. doi:10.1121/1.1908271

Hughes, G. W., & Halle, M. (1976). Spectral properties of fricative consonants. In D. B. Fry (Ed.), Acoustic phonetics. A course of basic readings. (pp. 151-61). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Original work published 1956)

Jassem, V. (1965). The formants of fricative consonants. Language and Speech, 8(1), 1-16.

Jesus, L. M. T., & Shadle, C. H. (2002). A parametric study of the spectral characteristics of European Portuguese fricatives. Journal of Phonetics, 30(3), 437-464. doi:10.1006/jpho.2002.0169

Labraña, S. (2014). Parámetros acústicos dos sons fricativos da lingua galega. Estudios de fonética experimental, 23, 203-243. Retrieved from http://www.raco.cat/index.php/EFE/article/view/285987

Martí, J. (1986). Paràmetres acústics per a la síntesi de les consonants fricatives catalanes. Estudios de Fonética Experimental, 2, 153-193. Retrieved from http://www.raco.cat/index.php/EFE/article/view/144198

Recasens, D., & Espinosa, A. (2007). An electropalatographic and acoustic study of affricates and fricatives in two Catalan dialects. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37(2), 143-172. doi:10.1017/S0025100306002829

Salcioli, V. (1981). Anàlisi espectrogràfica de les prepalatals del català parlat a Barcelona. Anuario de Filología, 7, 533-550.

Strevens, P. (1960). Spectra of fricative noise in human speech. Language and Speech, 3(1), 32-49.

Strevens, P. (1967). Spectra of fricative noise in human speech. In I. Lehiste (Ed.), Readings in acoustic phonetics. (pp. 202-19). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (Original work published 1960)

Strevens, P. (1976). Spectra of fricative noise in human speech. In D. B. Fry (Ed.), Acoustic phonetics. A course of basic readings. (pp. 132-50). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Original work published 1960)

Torreira, F., & Ernestus, M. (2012). Weakening of intervocalic /s/ in the Nijmegen Corpus of Casual Spanish. Phonetica, 69(3), 124-148. doi:10.1159/000343635

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Laterals

Bladon, R. A. W., & Carbonaro, E. (1978). Lateral consonants in Italian. Journal of Italian Linguistics, 3(1), 43-54.

Chafcouloff, M. (1972). Recherches sur la structure acoustique du /l/ et ses correlations articulatoires. Travaux de l’Institut de Phonétique d’Aix, 1, 101-111.

Chafcouloff, M. (1980). Les caractéristiques acoustiques de /j,y,w,l,r/ en français. Travaux de l’Institut de Phonétique d’Aix, 7, 7-56.

Comas, M. T. (1986). Caracterització acústica de realitzacions de [l] en parlants bilingües català - castellà (Tesi de llicenciatura). Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra.

Dalston, R. M. (1974). Acoustic characteristics of English /w,r,l/ spoken correctly by young children and adults. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 57(2), 462-469. doi:10.1121/1.380469

Dorta, J., & Almeida, M. (1993). Datos acústicos de las líquidas españolas. In C. Díaz Alayón (Ed.), Homenaje a José Pérez Vidal. (pp. 97-110). La Laguna: Litografía A. Romero.

Fernández Prat, H., Garrido, J. M., & de la Mota, C. (1989). Modelling coarticulation in synthesized Spanish lateral consonant [l]. In T. Szende (Ed.), Proceedings of Speech Research 89 (Magyar Fonetikai Füzetek / Hungarian Papers in Phonetics, 21). (pp. 210-3). Budapest: Linguistics Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

Ladefoged, P., Cochran, A., & Disner, S. (1977). Laterals and trills. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 7(2), 46-54. doi:10.1017/S0025100300005636

Llisterri, J., & Martínez Daudén, G. (1991). Lateral consonant production in bilingual speakers learning a third language. In ICPhS 1991. Actes du 12ème Congrès International de Sciences Phonétiques (Vol. 2, pp. 318-321). Aix-en-Provence, France, 19-24 August, 1991. Retrieved from http://liceu.uab.cat/~joaquim/publicacions/Llisterri_Martinez_91.pdf

Maddieson, I. (1980). A survey of liquids. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 50, 93-112. Retrieved from https://escholarship.org/uc/item/7999p9xw

Martínez Daudén, G., & Llisterri, J. (1990). Phonetic interference in bilingual speakers learning a third language: The production of lateral consonants. ERIC Document Reproduction Service (ED 324 909). Retrieved from http://liceu.uab.cat/~joaquim/publicacions/Martinez_Llisterri_91.pdf

Massone, M. I. (1988). Estudio acústico y perceptivo de las consonantes nasales y líquidas del español. Estudios de Fonética Experimental, 3, 13-34. Retrieved from http://www.raco.cat/index.php/EFE/article/view/144221

Quilis, A., Esgueva, M., Gutiérrez Araus, M. L., & Cantarero, M. (1979). Características acústicas de las consonantes laterales españolas. Lingüística Española Actual, 1(2), 233-343.

Ramírez, C. J. (2006). Acoustic and perceptual characterization of the epenthetic vowel between the clusters formed by consonant + liquid in Spanish. In M. Díaz-Campos (Ed.), Selected proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Laboratory Approaches to Spanish Phonetics and Phonology. (pp. 48-61). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. Retrieved from http://www.lingref.com/cpp/lasp/2/abstract1325.html

Recasens, D. (1996). An articulatory-perceptual account of vocalization and elision of dark /l/ in the Romance languages. Language and Speech, 39(1), 63-89.

Recasens, D. (2004). Darkness in [l] as a scalar phonetic property: implications for phonology and articulatory control. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 18(6-8), 593-603. doi:10.1080/02699200410001703556

Recasens, D., & Espinosa, A. (2005). Articulatory, positional and coarticulatory characteristics for clear /l/ and dark /l/: evidence from two Catalan dialects. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35(1), 1-25. doi:10.1017/S0025100305001878

Recasens, D., & Farnetani, E. (1990). Articulatory and acoustic properties of different allophones of /l/ in American English, Catalan and Italian. In ICSLP 1990. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Spoken Language Processing. (pp. 961-4). Kobe, Japan, November 18-22, 1990. Retrieved from http://pagines.uab.cat/danielrecasens/sites/pagines.uab.cat.danielrecasens/files/Kobe.pdf

Recasens, D., Fontdevila, J., & Dolors Pallarès, M. (1995). Velarization degree and coarticulatory resistance for /I/ in Catalan and German. Journal of Phonetics, 23(1-2), 37-52. Retrieved from http://pagines.uab.cat/danielrecasens/sites/pagines.uab.cat.danielrecasens/files/resistance%20l,%20JPh1995.pdf

Recasens, D., Fontdevila, J., & Pallarès, M. D. (1996). Linguopalatal coarticulation and alveolar-palatal correlations for velarized and non-velarized /l/. Journal of Phonetics, 24(1), 165-185. doi:10.1006/jpho.1996.0010

Rost, A. (2009). La consonante lateral ante semiconsonante palatal en español: Un caso de palatalización. Interlingüística, 19, 374-385.

Simonet, M. (2010). Alveolar laterals in Majorcan Spanish: Effects of contact with Catalan? In A. Colina, A. Olarrea, & A. M. Carvalho (Eds.), Romance Linguistics 2009: Selected papers from the 39th Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages (LSLR). (pp. 81-94). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Simonet, M. (2010). Dark and clear laterals in Catalan and Spanish: Interaction of phonetic categories in early bilinguals. Journal of Phonetics, 38(4), 663-678. doi:10.1016/j.wocn.2010.10.002

Tarnóczy, T. (1948). Resonance data concerning nasals, laterals and trills. Word, 4(2), 71-77. doi:10.1080/00437956.1948.11659330

Tarnóczy, T. (1967). Resonance data concerning nasals, laterals and trills. In I. Lehiste (Ed.), Readings in acoustic phonetics. (pp. 111-7). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (Original work published 1948)

Widdison, K. (2004). Vocales esvarabáticas en grupos consonánticos con elemento lateral. Estudios de Fonética Experimental, 13, 65-78. Retrieved from http://www.raco.cat/index.php/EFE/article/view/140012

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Rhotics

Alwan, A., Narayanan, S., & Haker, K. (1997). Toward articulatory-acoustic models for liquid approximants based on MRI and EPG data. Part II. The rhotics. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 101(2), 1078-1089. doi:10.1121/1.417972

Blecua, B. (1999). Características acústicas de la vibrante múltiple del español en habla espontánea. In Actes del I congrés de fonètica experimental (pp. 119-126). Tarragona, Espanya. 22-24 de febrer de 1999.

Blecua, B. (2001). Las vibrantes del español: Manifestaciones acústicas y procesos fonéticos (Tesis doctoral). Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10803/4859

Blecua, B. (2005). Variación acústica de la vibrante en posición implosiva. In Filología y lingüística. Estudios ofrecidos a Antonio Quilis (pp. 97-112). Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas - Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia - Universidad de Valladolid.

Bradley, T. G. (2001). The phonetics and phonology of rhotic duration contrast and neutralization (Doctoral dissertation). The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA. Retrieved from https://spanish-dev.ucdavis.edu/sites/default/files/profiles/files/bradley2001_diss.pdf

Bradley, T. G. (2004). Gestural timing and rhotic variation in Spanish codas. In T. Face (Ed.), Laboratory approaches to Spanish phonology (pp. 197-224). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Retrieved from https://spanish.ucdavis.edu/sites/default/files/profiles/files/bradley_lasp.pdf

Bradley, T. G. (2006). Phonetic realizations of /sr/ clusters in Latin American Spanish. In M. Díaz-Campos (Ed.), Selected Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Laboratory Approaches to Spanish Phonetics and Phonology (pp. 1-13). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. Retrieved from http://www.lingref.com/cpp/lasp/2/paper1321.pdf

Bradley, T. G., & Schmeiser, B. (2003). On the phonetic reality of Spanish /r/ in complex onsets. In P. Kempchinsky & C.-E. E. Piñeros (Eds.), Theory, practice and acquisition. Papers from the 6th Spanish Linguistics Symposium and the 5th Conference on the Acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese (pp. 1-20). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press. Retrieved from https://spanish.ucdavis.edu/sites/default/files/profiles/files/bradleyschmeiser.pdf

Byrd, D. (1993). 54,000 American stops. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 83, 97-116. Retrieved from http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~dbyrd/Byrd54_UCLAWPP.pdf

Cerdà, R. (1968). Algunas observaciones en torno a la definición de r española. Boletín de Filología Española, 26-27, 19-24.

Chafcouloff, M. (1979). Les propriétés acoustiques de [j,y,w,l,r] en français. Travaux de l’Institut de Phonétique d’Aix, 6, 10-24.

Chafcouloff, M. (1980). Les caractéristiques acoustiques de /j,y,w,l,r/ en français. Travaux de l’Institut de Phonétique d’Aix, 7, 7-56.

Chafcouloff, M. (1983). A propos des indices de distinction /l-R/ en français. Speech Communication, 2(2-3), 137-139. doi:10.1016/0167-6393(83)90011-0

Chafcouloff, M. (1983). The synthesis of French sonorants: A review of Delattre’s rules. Travaux de l’Institut de Phonétique d’Aix, 9, 17-28.

Colantoni, L. (2006). Increasing periodicity to reduce similarity: An acoustic account of deassibilation in rhotics. In M. Díaz-Campos (Ed.), Selected Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Laboratory Approaches to Spanish Phonetics and Phonology (pp. 22-34). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. Retrieved from http://www.lingref.com/cpp/lasp/2/abstract1323.html

Dalston, R. M. (1974). Acoustic characteristics of English /w,r,l/ spoken correctly by young children and adults. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 57(2), 462-469. doi:10.1121/1.380469

de Carvalho, K. C. H. P. (2004). Descrição fonético-acústica das vibrantes no português e no espanhol (Tese de doutorado). Universidade Estadual Paulista, São Paulo. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/11449/102467

de Carvalho, K. C. H. P. (2006). Estudo fonético-acústico dos róticos no português e no espanhol para uma aplicação pedagógica. Estudos Lingüísticos, 35, 1090-1096. Retrieved from http://www.gel.org.br/estudoslinguisticos/edicoesanteriores/4publica-estudos-2006/sistema06/1264.pdf

de la Mota, C. (1991). A study of [r] and [ɾ] in spontaneous speech. In ICPhS 1987. Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (Vol. 4, pp. 386-389). Aix-en-Provence: Université de Provence, Service des Publications.

Delattre, P. (1969). L’/R/ parisien et autres sons du pharynx. The French Review, 43(1), 5-22.

Derrick, D., & Gick, B. (2008). Quantitative analysis of subphonemic flap/tap variation in NAE. In Proceedings of the Acoustics Week in Canada (pp. 162-163). Vancouver, B.C., Canada. 6-8 October, 2008. Retrieved from http://www.ece.ubc.ca/~donaldd/publications/proceedings_AWC_08_donald_derrick.pdf

Díaz-Campos, M. (2008). Variable production of the trill in spontaneous speech: Sociolinguistic implications. In L. Colantoni & J. Steele (Eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Laboratory Approaches to Spanish Phonology (pp. 47-58). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. Retrieved from http://www.lingref.com/cpp/lasp/3/abstract1713.html

Dorta, J., & Almeida, M. (1993). Datos acústicos de las líquidas españolas. In C. Díaz Alayón (Ed.), Homenaje a José Pérez Vidal. (pp. 97-110). La Laguna.

Espy-Wilson, C., Boyce, S. E., Jackson, M., Narayanan, S., & Alwan, A. (2000). Acoustic modelling of American English /r/. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 108(1), 343-356. doi:10.1121/1.429469

Guenthera, F. H., Espy-Wilson, C. Y., Boyce, S. E., Matthies, M. L., Zandipur, M., & Perkell, J. S. (1999). Articulatory tradeoffs reduce acoustic variability during American English /r/ production. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 105(5), 2854-2865. doi:10.1121/1.426900

Hagiwara, R. (1994). Three types of American /r/. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 88, 55-62. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/6p1293fd

Hagiwara, R. (1994). Sex, syllabic /ɹ̩/, and the American English vowel space. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 88, 63-90. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/6p1293fd

Hagiwara, R. (1995). Acoustic realizations of American /r/ as produced by women and men. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 90. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8779b7gq

Hammond, R. M. (2000). The phonetic realizations of /rr/ in Spanish: A psychoacoustic analysis. In H. Campos, E. Herburger, A. Morales Front, & T. J. Walsh (Eds.), Hispanic linguistics at the turn of the millennium. Papers from the 3rd Hispanic linguistics symposium. (pp. 80-100). Sommerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Henriksen, N. C., & Willis, E. W. (2010). Acoustic characterization of phonemic trill production in Jerezano Andalusian Spanish. In M. Ortega-Llebaria (Ed.), Selected Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Laboratory Approaches to Spanish Phonology (pp. 115-127). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. Retrieved from http://www.lingref.com/cpp/lasp/4/abstract2372.html

Kosiel, U. (1970). Acoustic-phonetic parameters of the Polish frictionless consonants /l/ and /r/. In W. Jassem (Ed.), Speech analysis and synthesis. Vol. 2. (pp. 135-61). Warsaw: Polish Academy of Sciences.

Ladefoged, P., Cochran, A., & Disner, S. (1977). Laterals and trills. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 7(2), 46-54. doi:10.1017/S0025100300005636

Lewis, A. M. (2003). Continuancy and the aerodynamics of /r/ production in Spanish. In ICPhS 2003. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 423-426). Barcelona, Spain. 3-9 August, 2003. Retrieved from https://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/icphs-proceedings/ICPhS2003/p15_0423.html

Lewis, A. M. (2004). Coarticulatory effects on Spanish trill production. In A. Agwuele, W. Willis, & S. H. Park (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2003 Texas Linguistics Society Conference: Coarticulation in Speech Production and Perception (pp. 116-127). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. Retrieved from http://www.lingref.com/cpp/tls/2003/abstract1073.html

Lindau, M. (1985). The story of /r/. In V. Fromkin (Ed.), Phonetic linguistics. Essays in honor of Peter Ladefoged. (pp. 157-68). New York: Academic Press.

Maddieson, I. (1980). A survey of liquids. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 50, 93-112. Retrieved from https://escholarship.org/uc/item/7999p9xw

Massone, M. I. (1988). Estudio acústico y perceptivo de las consonantes nasales y líquidas del español. Estudios de Fonética Experimental, 3, 13-34. Retrieved from http://www.raco.cat/index.php/EFE/article/view/144221

Monnot, M., & Freeman, M. (1972). A comparison of Spanish single-tap /r/ with American /t/ and /d/ in post-stress intervocalic position. In A. Valdman (Ed.), Papers in linguistics and phonetics to the memory of Pierre Delattre. (pp. 409-16). The Hague: Mouton.

Navarro Tomás, T. (1916). Las vibraciones de la RR española. Revista de Filología Española, 3, 166-168.

Obediente, E. (1996). Datos sobre la r asibilada en Venezuela. Lengua y Habla, 1(2), 57-65. Retrieved from http://erevistas.saber.ula.ve/index.php/lenguayhabla/article/view/3553

Obediente, E., Mora, E., & Rodríguez, M. (1994). Caracterización articulatoria y acústica de las líquidas en el español de Mérida (Venezuela). Boletín Antropológico, 30, 7-32.

Quilis, A. (1970). El elemento esvarabático en los grupos [PR, BR,TR...]. In Phonétique et linguistique romanes. Mélanges offerts à M. Georges Straka. Vol. 1. (pp. 99-104). Lyon - Strasbourg: Imp. Protat Frères.

Quilis, A. (1997). Caracterización acústica de la realización africada de /tr/. In M. Almeida & J. Dorta (Eds.), Contribuciones al estudio de la lingüística hispánica. Homenaje al profesor Ramón Trujillo (Vol. 1, pp. 97-102). Tenerife: Cabildo de Tenerife - Montesinos.

Quilis, A., & Carril, R. B. (1971). Análisis acústico de [r] en algunas zonas de Hispanoamérica. Revista de Filología Española, 54(3-4), 271-316. Retrieved from http://revistadefilologiaespañola.revistas.csic.es/index.php/rfe/article/view/844

Quilis, A., & Vaquero, M. (1984). Datos acústicos de /r/ en el español de Puerto Rico. In Homenaje a Pedro Henríquez Ureña. Actas del VII Congreso de la Asociación de Lingüística y Filología de América Latina (Vol. 2, pp. 115-142). Santo Domingo: Asociación de Lingüística y Filología de América Latina.

Ramírez, C. J. (2006). Acoustic and perceptual characterization of the epenthetic vowel between the clusters formed by consonant + liquid in Spanish. In M. Díaz-Campos (Ed.), Selected Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Laboratory Approaches to Spanish Phonetics and Phonology (pp. 48-61). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. Retrieved from http://www.lingref.com/cpp/lasp/2/abstract1325.html

Ravelo, P. (1999). El llamado “elemento esvarabático”: ¿sólo un curioso segmento vocálico? In Actes del I congrés de fonètica experimental (pp. 287-294). Tarragona, Espanya. 22-24 de febrer de 1999.

Recasens, D., & Pallarès, M. D. (1999). A study of /ɾ/ and /r/ in the light of the “DAC” coarticulation model. Journal of Phonetics, 27(2), 143-169. doi:10.1006/jpho.1999.0092

Rello, L., & Llisterri, J. (2010). Naturalidad y expresividad en la conversión de texto en habla: Las consonantes róticas en coda silábica en español. IX congreso internacional de lingüística general. Valladolid, España. 21-23 de junio de 2010. Retrieved from http://liceu.uab.cat/~joaquim/speech_technology/CLG_10/CLG_10.html

Schmeiser, B. (2009). An acoustic analysis of svarabhakti vowels in Guatemalan Spanish /rC/ clusters. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics. Proceedings of the 32nd Penn Linguistics Colloquium, 15(1), 193-202. Retrieved from http://repository.upenn.edu/pwpl/vol15/iss1/22/

Schmeiser, B. (2009). Prosodic and segmental effects on vowel intrusion duration in Spanish /rC/ clusters. In M. Vigário, F. Frota, & M. J. Freitas (Eds.), Phonetics and phonology: Interactions and interrelations. (pp. 181-202). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Simonet, M., Rohena-Madrazo, M., & Paz, M. (2008). Preliminary evidence for incomplete neutralization of coda liquids in Puerto Rican Spanish. In L. Colantoni & J. Steele (Eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Laboratory Approaches to Spanish Phonology (pp. 72-86). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. Retrieved from http://www.lingref.com/cpp/lasp/3/abstract1715.html

Tarnóczy, T. (1948). Resonance data concerning nasals, laterals and trills. Word, 4(2), 71-77. doi:10.1080/00437956.1948.11659330

Tarnóczy, T. (1967). Resonance data concerning nasals, laterals and trills. In I. Lehiste (Ed.), Readings in acoustic phonetics. (pp. 111-7). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (Original work published 1948)

Willis, E. W. (2006). Trill variation in Dominican Spanish: An acoustic examination and comparative analysis. In N. Sagarra & A. J. Toribio (Eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 9th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium (pp. 121-131). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. Retrieved from http://www.lingref.com/cpp/hls/9/abstract1372.html

Willis, E. W., & Bradley, T. G. (2008). Contrast maintenance of taps and trills in Dominican Spanish: Data and analysis. In L. Colantoni & J. Steele (Eds.), Selected Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Laboratory Approaches to Spanish Phonology (pp. 87-100). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. Retrieved from http://www.lingref.com/cpp/lasp/3/abstract1716.html

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Segmental duration and timing

Allen, G. D. (1978). Vowel duration measurement: A reliability study. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 63(4), 1176-1185. doi:10.1121/1.381826

Allen, J. S., & Miller, J. L. (1999). Effects of syllable-initial voicing and speaking rate on the temporal characteristics of monosyllabic words. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 106(4), 2031-2039. doi:10.1121/1.427949

Beardsley, A. N., & Cullinam, W. L. (1987). Speech sample type and children’s segmental durations. Journal of Phonetics, 15, 29-38.

Borzone, A. M., & Signorini, A. (1983). Segmental duration and rhythm in Spanish. Journal of Phonetics, 11, 117-128.

Campbell, W. N., & Isard, S. D. (1991). Segment duration in a syllable frame. Journal of Phonetics, 19(1), 37-48.

Chen, M. (1970). Vowel lenght variation as a function of the voicing of the consonant environment. Phonetica, 22, 129-159.

Crystal, T. H., & House, A. S. (1982). Segmental durations in connected speech signals: Preliminary results. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 72(3), 705-716. doi:10.1121/1.388251

Crystal, T. H., & House, A. S. (1988). Segmental durations in connected-speech signals: Current results. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 83(4), 1553-1573. doi:10.1121/1.395911

Crystal, T. H., & House, A. S. (1988). Segmental durations in connected-speech signals: Syllabic stress. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 83(4), 1574-1585. doi:10.1121/1.395912

Crystal, T. H., & House, A. S. (1988). The duration of American English vowels: an overview. Journal of Phonetics, 16(3), 263-284.

Crystal, T. H., & House, A. S. (1990). Articulation rate and the duration of syllables and stress groups in connected speech. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 88(1), 101-112. doi:10.1121/1.399955

Cuenca, M. H. (1996). Análisis instrumental de la duración de las vocales en español. Philologia Hispalensis, 11, 295-307.

Eefting, W. (1991). The effect of “information value” and “accentuation” on the duration of Dutch words, syllables, and segments. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 89(1), 412-424. doi:10.1121/1.400475

Farnetani, E., & Kori, S. (1986). Effects of syllable and word structure on segmental durations in spoken Italian. Speech Communication, 5(1), 17-34. doi:10.1016/0167-6393(86)90027-0

Fletcher, J., & McVeigh, A. (1993). Segment and syllable duration in Australian English. Speech Communication, 13(3-4), 355-365. doi:10.1016/0167-6393(93)90034-I

Fowler, C. A. (1988). Differential shortening of repeated content words produced in various communicative contexts. Language and Speech, 31(4), 307-19.

Fujimura, O. (2000). C/D model prediction of CVC segmental duration for varied syllable prominence. The Phonetician, 82, 9-21.

Guspí, M. (1993). Estudi de la duració de les consonants en el context de final i de principi de paraula en català i en castellà. Estudios de Fonética Experimental, 5, 189-221. Retrieved from http://www.raco.cat/index.php/EFE/article/view/144362

Harris, M. S., & Umeda, N. (1974). Effect of speaking mode on temporal factors in speech: vowel duration. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 56(3), 1016-1018. doi:10.1121/1.1903366

House, A. S. (1961). On vowel duration in English. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 33(9), 1174-1178. doi:10.1121/1.1908941

Klatt, D. H. (1973). Interaction between two factors that influence vowel duration. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 54(4), 1102-1104. doi:10.1121/1.1914322

Klatt, D. H. (1975). Vowel lengthening is syntactically determined in a connected discourse. Journal of Phonetics, 3(3), 129-140.

Klatt, D. H. (1976). Linguistic uses of segmental duration in English: Acoustic and perceptual evidence. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 59(5), 1208-1221. doi:10.1121/1.380986

Klatt, D. H. (1991). Linguistic uses of segmental duration in English: Acoustic and perceptual evidence. In R. D. Kent, B. S. Atal, & J. L. Miller (Eds.), Papers in speech communication: Speech production (pp. 503-516). New York, NY: The Acoustical Society of America. (Original work published 1976)

Luce, P. A., & Charles-Luce, J. (1985). Contextual effects on vowel duration, closure duration, and the consonant/vowel ratio in speech production. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 78(6), 1949-1957. doi:10.1121/1.392651

Marín, R. (1994). La duración vocálica en español. ELUA. Estudios de Lingüística de La Universidad de Alicante, 10, 213-226. Retrieved from http://rua.ua.es/dspace/bitstream/10045/6389/1/ELUA_10_11.pdf

O’Shaughnessy, D. (1984). A multispeaker analysis of durations in read French paragraphs. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 76(6), 1664-1672. doi:10.1121/1.391613

Oller, D. K. (1973). The effect of position in utterance on speech segment duration in English. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 54(5), 1235-1247. doi:10.1121/1.1914393

Peterson, G. E., & Lehiste, I. (1960). Duration of syllable nuclei in English. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 32(6), 693-703. doi:10.1121/1.1908183

Port, R. F., & Rotunno, R. (1979). Relation between voice-onset time and vowel duration. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 66(3), 654-662. doi:10.1121/1.383692

Umeda, N. (1975). Vowel duration in American English. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 58(2), 434-445. doi:10.1121/1.380688

Umeda, N. (1977). Consonant duration in American English. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 61(3), 846-858. doi:10.1121/1.381374

Van Santen, J. P. H. (1992). Contextual effects on vowel duration. Speech Communication, 11(6), 513-546. doi:10.1016/0167-6393(92)90027-5

Van Santen, J. P. H., & Olive, J. P. (1990). The analysis of contextual effects on segmental duration. Computer Speech & Language, 4(4), 359-390. doi:10.1016/0885-2308(90)90016-Y

Wright, T. W. (1974). Temporal interactions within a phrase and sentence context. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 56(4), 1258-1265. doi:10.1121/1.1903417

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Segmental intensity

Albalá, M. J., & Marrero, V. (1995). La intensidad de los sonidos españoles. Revista de Filología Española, 75(1-2), 105-132. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10261/12448

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Acoustic analysis techniques


= Recommended introductory/general reading


= Recommended advanced reading

Baken, R. J. (1987). Clinical measurement of speech and voice. London: Taylor & Francis.

Ball, M. J., & Code, C. (Eds). (1997). Instrumental clinical phonetics. London: Whurr Publishers.

Code, C., & Ball, M. J. (Eds). (1984). Clinical phonetics. Investigatory techniques in speech pathology and therapeutics. Beckenham: Croom Helm.

Cooke, M., Beet, S., & Crawford, M. (Eds). (1993). Visual representation of speech signals. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Harrington, J., & Cassidy, S. (1999). Techniques in speech acoustics. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

1.- The scope of speech acoustics; 2.- The physics of speeech; 3.- The acoustic theory of speech production; 4.- Segmental and prosodic cues; 5.- Time-domain analysis; 6.- Frequency-domain analysis; 7.- Digital formant synthesis; 7.- Linear prediction of speech; 9.- Classification of speech data.

Ladefoged, P. (1991). Computerized phonetic fieldwork. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 78, 1-16. Retrieved from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8j00q68c


Ladefoged, P. (1997). Instrumental techniques for linguistic phonetic fieldwork. In W. J. Hardcastle & J. Laver (Eds.), The handbook of phonetic sciences. (pp. 137-66). Oxford: Blackwell.


Ladefoged, P. (2003). Phonetic data analysis. An introduction to fieldwork and instrumental techniques. Oxford: Blackwell.

1.- Recording the sounds of a language; 2.- Finding the places of articulation; 3.- Aerodynamic investigations; 4.- Pitch, loudness, and lenght; 5.- Characterizing vowels; 6.- Acoustic analysis of consonants; 7.- Acoustic analysis of phonation types; 8.- Coda.

Newell Decker, T., & Carrell, T. D. (2004). Instrumentation. An introduction for students in the speech and hearing sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Painter, C. (1979). An introduction to instrumental phonetics. Baltimore: University Park Press.


Román Montes de Oca, D. (2011). Manual para el análisis fonético acústico. Santiago de Chile: Pfeiffer.

1.- ¿Qué significa hacer Fonética Acústica hoy día?; 2.- Elementos necesarios; 3.- Sonido digital y sonido analógico; 4.- La grabación; 5.- Edición de las señales; 6.- Etiquetar una señal; 7.- ¿Cómo hacer espectrogramas?; 8.- Análisis temporal; 9.- Análisis de formantes; 10.- Análisis del tono (pitch); 11.- Gráficos; Glosario; Respuestas a los cuestionarios.


Rosen, S., & Howell, P. (1991). Signals and systems for speech and hearing. London: Academic Press.


Rosen, S. & Howell, P. (2010). Signals and systems for speech and hearing (2nd ed.). Bingley: Emerald.

Singh, S. (Ed). (1975). Measurement procedures in speech, hearing and language. Baltimore: University Park Press.

Wakita, H. (1976). Instrumentation for the study of speech. In N. J. Lass (Ed.), Contemporary issues in experimental phonetics. (pp. 3-40). New York: Academic Press.

Wakita, H. (1980). New methods of analysis in speech acoustics. Phonetica, 37(1-2), 87-108.

Wakita, H. (1996). Instrumentaltion for the study of speech acoustics. In N. J. Lass (Ed.), Principles of experimental phonetics. (pp. 469-94). St. Louis: Mosby.


Watt, D. (2013). Research methods in speech acoustics. In M. J. Jones & R.-A. Knight (Eds.), The Bloomsbury companion to phonetics (pp. 79-97). London: Bloomsbury.

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Spectrographic analysis


= Recommended introductory/general reading


= Recommended advanced reading

Agnello, J. G. (1985). Measurements and analysis of visible speech. In S. Singh (Ed.), Measurement procedures in speech, hearing and language. (pp. 379-97). Baltimore: University Park Press.

Cole, R. A., Rudnicky, A. I., Zue, V., & Reddy, R. D. (1980). Speech as patterns on paper. In R. A. Cole (Ed.), Perception and production of fluent speech. (pp. 3-50). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Delattre, P. (1951). The physiological interpretation of sound spectrograms. Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, 46(5), 864-875.

Delattre, P. (1966). The physiological interpretation of sound spectrograms. In Studies in French and comparative phonetics. Selected papers in French and English. (pp. 224-35). The Hague: Mouton. (Original work published 1951)

Fant, G. (1962). Sound spectrography. In ICPhS 1962. Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. (pp. 14-33). The Hague: Mouton.

Farmer, A. (1984). Spectrography. In C. Code & M. J. Ball (Eds.), Clinical phonetics. Investigatory techniques in speech pathology and therapeutics. (pp. 21-40). London: Croom Helm.

Farmer, A. (1997). Spectrography. In M. J. Ball & C. Code (Eds.), Instrumental clinical phonetics. (pp. 22-63). London: Whurr Publishers.

Fry, D. B. (1979). Acoustic analysis: The sound spectrograph. In The physics of speech. (pp. 89-110). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gabrys, G. (1990). Difficulty in learning to read speech spectrograms: The role of visual segmentation (Technical Report LRDC/PITT/IMP-1. Cognitive Science Program. Office of Naval Research). Pittsburgh: Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED318062

Greene, B. G., Pisoni, D. B., & Carrell, T. D. (1984). Recognition of speech spectrograms. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 76(1), 32-43. doi:10.1121/1.391035


Hayward, K. (2000). Analysing sound: The spectrograph. In Experimental phonetics. An introduction. (pp. 49-78). Harlow: Longman.


Hewlett, N., & Beck, J. (2006). Spectrograms. In An introduction to the science of phonetics. (pp. 165-78). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Koenig, W., Dunn, H. K., & Lacy, L. Y. (1946). The sound spectrograph. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 18(1), 19-49. doi:10.1121/1.1916342

Koenig, W., Dunn, H. R., & Lacy, L. Y. (1967). The sound spectrograph. In I. Lehiste (Ed.), Readings in acoustic phonetics. (pp. 3-33). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (Original work published 1946)

Koenig, W., Dunn, H. R., & Lacy, L. Y. (1976). The sound spectrograph. In D. B. Fry (Ed.), Acoustic phonetis. A course of basic readings. (pp. 77-91). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Original work published 1946)

Lamel, L. (1988). Formalizing knowledge used in spectrogram reading: Acoustic and perceptual evidence from stops (RLE Technical Report 537). Cambridge, MA: Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved from http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/4955/RLE-TR-537-20137092.pdf

Liberman, A. M., Cooper, F. S., Shankweiler, D. P., & Studdert-Kennedy, M. (1968). Why are speech spectrograms hard to read? American Annals of the Deaf, 113(2), 127-133.

Lindblom, B. (1964). Accuracy and limitations of Sona-Graph measurements. In ICPhS 1962. Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. (pp. 188-202). The Hague: Mouton.

Martínez Celdrán, E. (1998). Análisis espectrográfico de los sonidos del habla. Barcelona: Ariel.

Monsen, R. B., & Engebretson, A. M. (1983). The accuracy of formant frequency measurements: A comparison of spectrographic analysis and linear prediction. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 26(1), 89-97.

Potter, R., Kopp, G. A., & Green, H. (1947). Visible speech. New York: Bell Telephone Laboratories.

Potter, R., Kopp, G. A., & Green, H. (1966). Visible speech. New York: Dover Publications. (Original work published 1947)

Pulgram, E. (1959). Introduction to the spectrography of speech. The Hague: Mouton.

Quilis, A. (1960). El método espectrográfico (notas de fonética experimental). Revista de Filología Española, 43(3-4), 415-428.


Román Montes de Oca, D. (2011). ¿Cómo hacer espectrogramas? In Manual para el análisis fonético acústico. (pp. 75-88). Santiago de Chile: Pfeiffer.

Smith, B. L., Hillenbrand, J., & Ingrisano, D. (1986). A comparison of temporal measures of speech using spectrograms and digital oscillograms. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 29(2), 270-274.

Zue, V., & Cole, R. (1979). Experiments on spectrogram reading. In ICASSP 1979. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing. (pp. 116-9). Washington, District of Columbia, USA. April 2 - 4, 1979. doi:10.1109/ICASSP.1979.1170735

Zue, V., & Lamel, L. (1986). An expert spectrogram reader: A knowledge-based approach to speech recognition. In ICASSP 1986. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing. (pp. 1197-200). Tokyo, Japan. April 8 - 11, 1986. doi:10.1109/ICASSP.1986.1168798

Spectrogram reading and speech recognition

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Fundamental frequency analysis


= Recommended introductory/general reading


= Recommended advanced reading

Astésano, C., Espesser, R., Hirst, D., & Llisterri, J. (1997). Stylisation automatique de la fréquence fondamentale: une évaluation multilingue. In Actes du 4ème Congrés Français d?Acoustique (Vol. 1, pp. 441-443). Marseille, France. 14-18 avril, 1997. Retrieved from http://liceu.uab.cat/~joaquim/publicacions/Astesano_et_al_97.pdf

Campione, E., & Véronis, J. (2000). Une évaluation de l’algorithme de stylisation mélodique MOMEL. TIPA, Travaux Interdisciplinaires du Laboratoire Parole et Langage d’Aix-en-Provence, 19, 27-44. Retrieved from https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00285557

Estruch, M. (2000). Évaluation de l’algorithme de stylisation mélodique MOMEL et du système de codage symbolique INTSINT avec un corpus de passages en catalan. TIPA, Travaux Interdisciplinaires du Laboratoire Parole et Langage d’Aix-en-Provence, 19, 45-61. Retrieved from https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00285558


Estruch, M., Garrido, J. M., Llisterri, J., & Riera, M. (1996). Una aproximación fonética al estudio de la entonación. Philologia Hispalensis, 11, 218-293. Retrieved from http://liceu.uab.cat/~joaquim/publicacions/Sevilla_96.pdf


Estruch, M., Garrido, J. M., Llisterri, J., & Riera, M. (2007). Técnicas y procedimientos para la representación de las curvas melódicas. RLA. Revista de Lingüística Teórica y Aplicada, 45(2), 59-87. doi:10.4067/S0718-48832007000200007

Garrido, J. M. (1990). Modelización de patrones entonativos para la síntesis y el reconocimiento del habla (Trabajo de investigación de Tercer Ciclo). Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra. Retrieved from http://liceu.uab.cat/publicacions/Garrido_91_Modelizacion.pdf

Garrido, J. M. (1991). Estilización de patrones melódicos del español para sistemas de conversión texto-habla. Procesamiento del Lenguaje Natural, 11, 209-220. Retrieved from http://liceu.uab.cat/publicacions/Garrido_91_Estilizacion_Patrones_Melodicos_Sintesis.pdf

Garrido, J. M. (1996). Modelling Spanish intonation for text-to-speech applications (Doctoral dissertation). Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10803/4885

Garrido, J. M. (2010). A tool for automatic F0 stylisation, annotation and modelling of large corpora. In Speech Prosody 2010. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Speech Prosody. Chicago, IL, USA. 11-14 May, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.isca-speech.org/archive/sp2010/sp10_041.html

Gerhard, D. (2003). Pitch extraction and fundamental frequency: History and current techniques. Technical Report TR-CS 2003-06. Regina, Saskatchewan: Department of Computer Science, University of Regina. Retrieved from http://www.cs.uregina.ca/Research/Techreports/2003-06.pdf

Hess, W. (1983). Pitch determination of speech signals: Algorithms and devices. New York, NY: Springer.

Hirst, D., & Espesser, R. (1993). Automatic modelling of fundamental frequency using a quadratic spline function. Travaux de l’Institut de Phonétique d’Aix, 15, 71-85. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.40.3623


Ladefoged, P. (2003). The measurement of linguistic differences in pitch. In P. Martín Butragueño & E. Herrera Z (Eds.), La tonía. Dimensiones fonéticas y fonológicas (pp. 15-33). México, DF: El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Lingüísticos y Literarios.

Ladd, D. R., & Cutler, A. (1983). Models and measurements in the study of prosody. In A. Cutler & D. R. Ladd (Eds.), Prosody. Models and measurements (pp. 1-10). Heidelberg: Springer.

Mettas, O. (1971). Les techniques de la phonétique instrumentale et l’intonation. Bruxelles: Presses Universitaires de Bruxelles.

Parsa, V., & Jamieson, D. G. (1999). A comparison of high precision F0 extraction algorithms for sustained vowels. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 42(1), 112-126. doi:10.1044/jslhr.4201.112

Román, D. (2008). Recursos para el análisis acústico de la melodía del habla en Praat. Estudios de Fonética Experimental, 17, 343-358. Retrieved from http://www.raco.cat/index.php/EFE/article/view/140077


Román, D. (2011). Análisis del tono (pitch). In Manual para el análisis fonético acústico (pp. 121-140). Santiago de Chile: Pfeiffer.

Snell, R. C. (1995). An overview of pitch extraction techniques. Studies in Applied Linguistics, 2, 67-91.

’t Hart, J., Collier, R., & Cohen, A. (1990). A perceptual study of intonation. An experimental-phonetic approach to speech melody. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Takefuta, Y. (1975). Method of acoustic analysis of intonation. In S. Singh (Ed.), Measurement procedures in speech, hearing and language (pp. 363-378). Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.

Veprek, P., & Scordilis, M. S. (2002). Analysis, enhancement and evaluation of five pitch determination techniques. Speech Communication, 37(3-4), 249-270. doi:10.1016/S0167-6393(01)00017-6

Intonation

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LTAS, Long-Term Average Spectrum


= Recommended advanced reading

Boullosa, R. R., & Ruíz, S. J. P. (1984). Long-term average spectrum of Spanish. Applied Acoustics, 17(3), 201 - 208. doi:10.1016/0003-682X(84)90037-9

Byrne, D., Dillon, H., Tran, K., Arlinger, S., Wilbraham, K., Cox, R., . . . Ludvigsen, C. (1994). An international comparison of long-term average speech spectra. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 96(4), 2108-2120. doi:10.1121/1.410152

Delgado Hernández, J., & Zenker, F. (2002). El promedio del espectro del habla. Fundamentos y aplicaciones clínicas. Auditio. Revista Electrónica de Audiología, 1(3), 41-44. Retrieved from http://www.auditio.com/revista/articulo/11.html

Harmegnies, B. (1985). Contribution à l’étude statistique de la variabilité acoustique des sons de la parole. Revue de Phonétique Appliquée, 73-74-75, 51-68.

Harmegnies, B. (1988). SDDD: A new dissimilarity index for the comparison of speech spectra. Pattern Recognition Letters, 8, 153-158. Retrieved from http://portail.umons.ac.be/FR/universite/facultes/fpse/serviceseetr/sc_langage/Documents/Publis/Harmegnies_SDDD_anew_dissimilarity_index_for_the_comparison_of_speech_spectra,_pattern_recognition_letters.pdf

Harmegnies, B. (1992). Les sources de variation du spectre à long terme de parole: Revue de la littérature. Canadian Acoustics / Acoustique Canadienne, 20(2), 9-35.

Harmegnies, B., & Landercy, A. (1985). Language features in the long term average spectrum. Revue de Phonétique Appliquée, 73-74-75, 69-80.

Harmegnies, B., & Landercy, A. (1988). Intra-speaker variability of the long term speech spectrum. Speech Communication, 7(1), 81-86. doi:10.1016/0167-6393(88)90023-4


Keller, E. (2005). The analysis of voice quality in speech processing. In G. Chollet, A. Esposito, M. Faúndez Zanuy, & M. Marinaro (Eds.), Nonlinear speech modeling and applications: Advanced lectures and revised selected papers. (pp. 54-73). Berlin - Heidelberg: Springer. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.91.9949&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Master, S., de Biase, N., Pedrosa, V., & Chiari, B. M. (2006). O espectro médio de longo termo na pesquisa e na clínica fonoaudiológica. Pró-Fono Revista de Atualização Científica, 18(1), 111-120. doi:10.1590/S0104-56872006000100013

Mendoza, E., Valencia, N., Muñoz, J., & Trujillo, H. (1996). Differences in voice quality between men and women: Use of the long-term average spectrum (LTAS). Journal of Voice, 10(1), 59 - 66. doi:10.1016/S0892-1997(96)80019-1

Pittam, J. (1987). Discrimination of five voice qualities and prediction to perceptual ratings. Phonetica, 44(1), 38-49. doi:10.1159/000261778

Pittam, J. (1987). The long-term spectral measurement of voice-quality as a social and personality marker: A review. Language and Speech, 30(1), 1-12.

Pittam, J., Gallois, C., & Callan, V. (1990). The long-term spectrum and perceived emotion. Speech Communication, 9(3), 177-187. doi:10.1016/0167-6393(90)90055-E

Pittam, J., & Millar, L. B. (1989). Long-term spectrum on the acoustics of voice: An annotated and classified research bibliography. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Linguistics Club.

Zenker, F., Delgado Hernández, J., & Barajas, J. J. (2003). Características acústicas y aplicaciones audiológicas del promedio del espectro del habla a largo plazo. Revista de Logopedia, Foniatría y Audiología, 23(2), 58-65.

Voice quality

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Speech analysis tools


= Recommended introductory/general reading


= Recommended advanced reading

Burris, C., Vorperian, H. K., Fourakis, M., Kent, R. D., & Bolt, D. M. (2014). Quantitative and descriptive comparison of four acoustic analysis systems: vowel measurements. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 57(1), 26-45. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2013/12-0103)

Ladefoged, P. (1997). Instrumental techniques for linguistic phonetic fieldwork. In W. J. Hardcastle & J. Laver (Eds.), The handbook of phonetic sciences. (pp. 137-66). Oxford: Blackwell.


Ladefoged, P. (2003). Phonetic data analysis. An introduction to fieldwork and instrumental techniques. Oxford: Blackwell.

1.- Recording the sounds of a language; 2.- Finding the places of articulation; 3.- Aerodynamic investigations; 4.- Pitch, loudness, and lenght; 5.- Characterizing vowels; 6.- Acoustic analysis of consonants; 7.- Acoustic analysis of phonation types; 8.- Coda.


Román, D. (2011). Manual para el análisis fonético acústico. Santiago de Chile: Pfeiffer.

1.- ¿Qué significa hacer Fonética Acústica hoy día?; 2.- Elementos necesarios; 3.- Sonido digital y sonido analógico; 4.- La grabación; 5.- Edición de las señales; 6.- Etiquetar una señal; 7.- ¿Cómo hacer espectrogramas?; 8.- Análisis temporal; 9.- Análisis de formantes; 10.- Análisis del tono (pitch); 11.- Gráficos; Glosario; Respuestas a los cuestionarios.

Sjölander, K., & Beskow, J. (2000). WaveSurfer - an open source speech tool. In ICSLP 2000. Proceedings of the 6th international conference on spoken language processing. (pp. 464-7). Beijing, China, October 16-20, 2000. Retrieved from http://www.speech.kth.se/wavesurfer/wsurf_icslp00.pdf

Speech analysis tools

Tools for labelling and annotation of speech corpora

Tools for speech corpora acquisition and management

Praat


= Recommended introductory/general reading

Boersma, P. (2001). Praat, a system for doing phonetics by computer. Glot International, 5(9/10), 341-345. Retrieved from http://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/paul/papers/speakUnspeakPraat_glot2001.pdf

Boersma, P., & Weenink, D. (2011). Introductory tutorial to Praat. Praat: doing phonetics by computer. Amsterdam: Department of Language and Literature, University of Amsterdam. Retrieved from http://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/praat/manual/Intro.html

Boersma, P., & Weenink, D. (2016). Praat: doing phonetics by computer [Computer software]. Amsterdam: Department of Language and Literature, University of Amsterdam. Retrieved from http://www.praat.org

Correa, J. A. (2013). Díptico de alfabetos fonéticos: Alfabeto Fonético Internacional (IPA), Alfabeto X-SAMPA y Alfabeto Fonético de la Revista de Filología Española (contiene comandos para implementar el IPA en Praat). Instituto Caro y Cuervo. Bogotá: Instituto Caro y Cuervo. Retrieved from http://www.bibliodigitalcaroycuervo.gov.co/id/eprint/962


Correa, J. A. (2014). Manual de análisis acústico del habla con Praat. Bogotá: Instituto Caro y Cuervo. Retrieved from http://www.bibliodigitalcaroycuervo.gov.co/id/eprint/998

1.- Fundamentos; 2.- Análisis del habla; 3.- Transcripción y etiquetado; 4.- Manipulación de la señal.

Goldman, J.-P. (2006). Praat tutorials. Genève: ATL - Laboratoire d’Analyse et Technologie du Langage, Département de Linguistique, Université de Genève. Retrieved from http://latlcui.unige.ch/phonetique/praattutos.php

Llisterri, J. (2016). Praat. Bellaterra: Departament de Filologia Espanyola, Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona. Retrieved from http://liceu.uab.cat/~joaquim/phonetics/fon_Praat/Praat.html

Román, D. (n.d.). Manual de Praat. Santiago de Chile: Laboratorio de Fonética, Facultad de Letras, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Retrieved from http://www.domingo-roman.net/manual_analisis_acustico.html


Román, D. (2011). Manual para el análisis fonético acústico. Santiago de Chile: Pfeiffer.

1.- ¿Qué significa hacer Fonética Acústica hoy día?; 2.- Elementos necesarios; 3.- Sonido digital y sonido analógico; 4.- La grabación; 5.- Edición de las señales; 6.- Etiquetar una señal; 7.- ¿Cómo hacer espectrogramas?; 8.- Análisis temporal; 9.- Análisis de formantes; 10.- Análisis del tono (pitch); 11.- Gráficos; Glosario; Respuestas a los cuestionarios.

Sadowsky, S. (2013). Tutoriales de Praat. Temuco: Universidad de La Frontera. Retrieved from http://sadowsky.cl/tutoriales-praat-es.html

Styler, W. (2015). Using Praat for linguistic research (Version 1.5). Boulder CO: The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Vowels. Retrieved from http://savethevowels.org/praat/

Universitat de Girona. (n.d.). Manual Praat. Laboratori de Fonètica, Universitat de Girona. Retrieved from http://www.udg.edu/aer/Laboratoridefonetica/Recursos/ManualPraat/tabid/14236/language/ca-ES/Default.aspx

Weenink, D. (2013). Speech signal processing with Praat. Amsterdam: Department of Language and Literature, University of Amsterdam. Retrieved from http://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/david/sspbook/sspbook.pdf

Welker, C., & Quené, H. (2006). Tutorial for self study: basic phonetics and how to use Praat. Utrecht: Utrecht Institute of Linguistics OTS, Utrecht University. Retrieved from http://www.let.uu.nl/uilots/lab/courseware/phonetics/index.html


Wood, S. (2015). Praat for beginners. SWPhonetics. Retrieved from http://swphonetics.com/praat/

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Applications

Speech technologies

Second language acquisition

Forensic phonetics

Clinical phonetics

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Acoustic phonetics

General phonetics


Acoustic Phonetics - Bibliography
Joaquim Llisterri, Departament de Filologia Espanyola, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

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