Tipologia fonètica: els sons vocàlics a les llengües del món


Tipologia fonètica: treballs específics sobre vocals


Dimensions articulatòries de la variació en les vocals

Ladefoged, P. i Maddieson, I. (1996). The sounds of the world’s languages. Blackwell.

Ladefoged, P. i Maddieson, I. (1990). Vowels of the world’s languages. Journal of Phonetics, 18(2), 93–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(19)30396-1

Ladefoged, P. i Disner, S. F. (2012). Vowels and consonants (3a ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. http://www.vowelsandconsonants3e.com/index.html

Ladefoged, P. i Johnson, K. (2015). A course in phonetics (7a ed.). Cengage Learning. https://linguistics.berkeley.edu/acip/

Peter Ladefoged
Peter Ladefoged (1925–2006)
(Font de la imatge: Department of Linguistics. (2010, 6 de maig). Remembering Peter Ladefoged. University of California Los Angeles. https://linguistics.ucla.edu/people/ladefoge/Remember/Index.htm)
(Font de la imatge: Maddieson, I. (2011). Ian Maddieson personal webpage. http://www.unm.edu/~ianm/index.html)
(Font de la imatge: Disner, S. F. (2007–2019). Sandra Ferrari Disner: Linguistic expert. https://www.linguistic-expert.com)
(Font de la imatge: Keith Johnson. (s. d.). University of California Berkeley, Department of Linguistics. http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/~kjohnson/)

Variacions en trets fonamentals i variacions en trets secundaris

Les vocals poden variar articulatòriament en tres dimensions (o trets) fonamentals:

Classificació articulatòria de les vocals a l’Alfabet Fonètic Internacional

Classificació a l’Alfabet Fonètic Internacional i característiques articulatòries de les vocals

Lawson, E., Stuart-Smith, J., Scobbie, J. M. i Nakai, S. (2018). IPA charts: Vowels. Seeing speech: An articulatory web resource for the study of phonetics. https://www.seeingspeech.ac.uk/ipa-charts/?chart=4

Les vocals també poden variar en altres trets secundaris:

Les variacions articulatòries es donen en un espai acústic definit per la freqüència dels dos primers formants.

Espai vocàlic possible delimitat pels dos primers formants

Espai vocàlic possible delimitat pels dos primers formants.

Ladefoged, P. i Disner, S. F. (2012). Vowels and consonants (3a ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. http://www.vowelsandconsonants3e.com/index.html

❯ Relacions entre les característiques articulatòries i les característiques acústiques de les vocals

Les vocals cardinals

«When describing the vowels that occurred on a particular occasion, one may not have access to measurements of the formant frequencies. Phoneticians who want to describe the vowels of a certain dialect or of a certain speaker often have to rely on their auditory abilities. They plot the vowels on a vowel chart, so that anybody familiar with vowel charts can see where the points are and can infer the quality of the vowels they are describing. For a vowel chart to be truly interpretable, the vowels on it must be plotted with reference to certain fixed points. These points must be known to both the people originally plotting the vowels and the people who are going to interpret their descriptions. … the British phonetician Daniel Jones proposed a series of eight cardinal vowels, evenly spaced around the outside of the possible vowel area and designed to act as fixed reference points for phoneticians. … Two of the cardinal vowels are defined in articulatory terms. Cardinal vowel (1) is produced with the lips spread and the tongue as high and far forward as possible without causing audible friction. It is therefore something like the vowel [i], but with a more extreme quality. The symbol for it is also [i]. The other cardinal vowel that is defined in articulatory terms is cardinal vowel (5). This vowel is made with the lips in a neutral position—neither spread nor rounded—and with the tongue as low and as far back as possible. … The symbol for cardinal vowel (5) is [ɑ]. … Cardinal vowels (2), (3), and (4) are defined as front vowels that form a series of auditorily equidistant steps between numbers (1) and (5). … Cardinal vowels (6), (7), and (8) are defined as vowels that continue from number (5), with the same-size steps as in the first part of the series, but are as back as possible (that is, with as small a distance as possible between formants one and two). In order to continue with these same-size steps, the back vowels have to become not only increasingly higher but also increasingly more rounded. As a result, cardinal vowel (8) is in fact the highest, most back, most rounded possible vowel—even though it is not defined in this way. … The symbols for cardinal vowels (2), (3), and (4) are [e, ɛ, a] respectively. The symbols for cardinal vowels (6), (7), and (8) are [ɔ, o, u]» (p. 217–219).

Ladefoged, P. i Johnson, K. (2015). A course in phonetics (7a ed.). Cengage Learning. https://linguistics.berkeley.edu/acip/
Peter Ladefoged
Peter Ladefoged (1925–2006)
(Font de la imatge: Department of Linguistics. (2010, 6 de maig). Remembering Peter Ladefoged. University of California Los Angeles. https://linguistics.ucla.edu/people/ladefoge/Remember/Index.htm)
(Font de la imatge: Keith Johnson. (s. d.). University of California Berkeley, Department of Linguistics. http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/~kjohnson/)
Vocals cardinals primàries

Vocals cardinals primàries

Ladefoged, P. i Johnson, K. (2015). The Cardinal Vowels. A course in phonetics (7a ed.). Cengage Learning. https://linguistics.berkeley.edu/acip/course/chapter9/cardinal/cardinal.html

Vocals cardinals secundàries

Vocals cardinals secundàries

Ladefoged, P. i Johnson, K. (2015). The Cardinal Vowels. A course in phonetics (7a ed.). Cengage Learning. https://linguistics.berkeley.edu/acip/course/chapter9/cardinal/cardinal.html

Ladefoged, P. i Johnson, K. (2015). The Cardinal Vowels. A course in phonetics (7a ed.). Cengage Learning. https://linguistics.berkeley.edu/acip/course/chapter9/cardinal/cardinal.html

orbitingteapot. (2007, 14 de desembre). The Cardinal Vowels with Daniel Jones [Vídeo]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6UIAe4p2I74

tornar al principi

Variacions en el grau d’obertura

Ladefoged, P. i Maddieson, I. (1996). The sounds of the world’s languages. Blackwell.

Ladefoged, P. i Maddieson, I. (1990). Vowels of the world’s languages. Journal of Phonetics, 18(2), 93–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(19)30396-1

Peter Ladefoged
Peter Ladefoged (1925–2006)
(Font de la imatge: Department of Linguistics. (2010, 6 de maig). Remembering Peter Ladefoged. University of California Los Angeles. https://linguistics.ucla.edu/people/ladefoge/Remember/Index.htm)
(Font de la imatge: Maddieson, I. (2011). Ian Maddieson personal webpage. http://www.unm.edu/~ianm/index.html)

❯ Classificació de les vocals segons el grau d’obertura

Totes les llengües presenten contrasts vocàlics en el grau d’obertura.

En llengües amb dos fonemes vocàlics, el contrast fonològic es dona en el grau d’obertura i no en el grau d’anterioritat o posterioritat, encara que els fonemes vocàlics poden presentar realitzacions al·lofòniques més o menys anteriors o posteriors.

Contrasts entre dos graus d’obertura

Marghi

Contrast entre dos graus d’obertura vocàlica en margi.

Marghi (Central). (2007). A The UCLA Phonetics Lab archive. University of California Los Angeles, Department of Linguistics. http://archive.phonetics.ucla.edu/Language/MRT/mrt.html

Moran, S. i McCloy, D. (Ed.). (2019). Language Marghi Central. A PHOIBLE 2.0. Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. https://phoible.org/languages/marg1265

Arrernte

Contrast entre dos graus d’obertura vocàlica en arrernte.

Arrernte, Eastern. (2006, 10 d’agost). A The UCLA Phonetics Lab archive. University of California Los Angeles, Department of Linguistics. http://archive.phonetics.ucla.edu/Language/AER/aer.html

Moran, S. i McCloy, D. (Ed.). (2019). Language Eastern Arrernte. A PHOIBLE 2.0. Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. https://phoible.org/languages/east2379

Ubykh

Contrast entre dos graus d’obertura vocàlica en ubykh.

El locutor enregistrat és Tevfik Esenç, considerat l’últim parlant d’ubykh.

Ubykh. (2008, 10 de gener). A The UCLA Phonetics Lab archive. University of California Los Angeles, Department of Linguistics. http://archive.phonetics.ucla.edu/Language/UBY/uby.html

Abkhaz

Contrast entre dos graus d’obertura vocàlica en abkhaz.

Abkhaz. (2008, 10 de gener). A The UCLA Phonetics Lab archive. University of California Los Angeles, Department of Linguistics. http://archive.phonetics.ucla.edu/Language/ABK/abk.html

Moran, S. i McCloy, D. (Ed.). (2019). Language Abkhazian. A PHOIBLE 2.0. Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. https://phoible.org/languages/abkh1244

Contrasts entre tres graus d’obertura

Kabardian

Contrast entre tres graus d’obertura vocàlica en kabardí.

Kabardian. (2008, 10 de gener). A The UCLA Phonetics Lab archive. University of California Los Angeles, Department of Linguistics. http://archive.phonetics.ucla.edu/Language/KBD/kbd.html

Moran, S. i McCloy, D. (Ed.). (2019). Language Kabardian. A PHOIBLE 2.0. Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. https://phoible.org/languages/kaba1278

Contrasts entre quatre graus d’obertura

Danish
Danish

[i]
[e]
[ɛ]
[a]

Contrast entre quatre graus d’obertura vocàlica en danès.

Grønnum, N. (1998). Danish. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28(1–2), 99–105. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0025100300006290

«Taking morphologically conditioned phonological alternation into account, the vowel sounds are manifestations of 10 vowel phonemes: /i e ɛ a y ø œ u o ɔ/, cf. Grønnum (1996, 1998)» (p. 101).

Grønnum, N. (1998). Danish. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28(1–2), 99–105. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0025100300006290

Moran, S. i McCloy, D. (Ed.). (2019). Language Danish. A PHOIBLE 2.0. Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. https://phoible.org/languages/dani1285

Contrasts entre cinc graus d’obertura

Bavarès

Contrast entre cinc graus d’obertura en les vocals anteriors del bavarès d’Amstetten (Traunmüller, 1982, citat a Disner, 1983).

Ladefoged, P. i Maddieson, I. (1996). The sounds of the world’s languages. Blackwell.

tornar al principi

Variacions en el grau d’anterioritat

Ladefoged, P. i Maddieson, I. (1996). The sounds of the world’s languages. Blackwell.

Ladefoged, P. i Maddieson, I. (1990). Vowels of the world’s languages. Journal of Phonetics, 18(2), 93–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(19)30396-1

Peter Ladefoged
Peter Ladefoged (1925–2006)
(Font de la imatge: Department of Linguistics. (2010, 6 de maig). Remembering Peter Ladefoged. University of California Los Angeles. https://linguistics.ucla.edu/people/ladefoge/Remember/Index.htm)
(Font de la imatge: Maddieson, I. (2011). Ian Maddieson personal webpage. http://www.unm.edu/~ianm/index.html)

❯ Classificació de les vocals segons el grau d’anterioritat

En general es troben menys contrasts en la dimensió anterior – posterior que en el grau d’obertura de les vocals.

Els contrasts en el grau d’anterioritat solen ser binaris, entre vocals anteriors i vocals posteriors.

Contrasts entre tres graus d’anterioritat

Ngwe

Contrast entre tres graus d’anterioritat en les vocals del ngwe.

Ngwe. (2007). A The UCLA Phonetics Lab archive. University of California Los Angeles, Department of Linguistics. http://archive.phonetics.ucla.edu/Language/NWE/nwe.html

Moran, S. i McCloy, D. (Ed.). (2019). Language Ngwe. A PHOIBLE 2.0. Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. https://phoible.org/languages/ngwe1238

Norwegian

Contrast entre tres graus d’anterioritat en les vocals del noruec.

Norwegian, Bokmål. (2008, 24 d’octubre). A The UCLA Phonetics Lab archive. University of California Los Angeles, Department of Linguistics. http://archive.phonetics.ucla.edu/Language/NOB/nob.html

Moran, S. i McCloy, D. (Ed.). (2019). Language Norwegian Bokmål. A PHOIBLE 2.0. Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. https://phoible.org/languages/norw1259

tornar al principi

Variacions en la labialització

Ladefoged, P. i Maddieson, I. (1996). The sounds of the world’s languages. Blackwell.

Ladefoged, P. i Maddieson, I. (1990). Vowels of the world’s languages. Journal of Phonetics, 18(2), 93–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(19)30396-1

Ladefoged, P. i Disner, S. F. (2012). Vowels and consonants (3a ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. http://www.vowelsandconsonants3e.com/index.html

Ladefoged, P. i Johnson, K. (2015). A course in phonetics (7a ed.). Cengage Learning. https://linguistics.berkeley.edu/acip/

Peter Ladefoged
Peter Ladefoged (1925–2006)
(Font de la imatge: Department of Linguistics. (2010, 6 de maig). Remembering Peter Ladefoged. University of California Los Angeles. https://linguistics.ucla.edu/people/ladefoge/Remember/Index.htm)
(Font de la imatge: Maddieson, I. (2011). Ian Maddieson personal webpage. http://www.unm.edu/~ianm/index.html)
(Font de la imatge: Disner, S. F. (2007–2019). Sandra Ferrari Disner: Linguistic expert. https://www.linguistic-expert.com)
(Font de la imatge: Keith Johnson. (s. d.). University of California Berkeley, Department of Linguistics. http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/~kjohnson/)

❯ Classificació de les vocals segons el grau de labialització

En general, les vocals anteriors no són labialitzades, mentre que les vocals posteriors solen ser labialitzades.

Contrasts de labialització en les vocals posteriors

Es poden donar contrasts de labialització en les vocals posteriors.

Vietnamese

Contrast en la labialització en les vocals posteriors del vietnamita.

Vietnamese. (2008, 23 d’octubre). A The UCLA Phonetics Lab archive. University of California Los Angeles, Department of Linguistics. http://archive.phonetics.ucla.edu/Language/VIE/vie.html

Moran, S. i McCloy, D. (Ed.). (2019). Language Vietnamese. A PHOIBLE 2.0. Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. https://phoible.org/languages/viet1252

Scottish Gaelic

/uː/ /ɯː/
/oː/ /ɤː/

Contrast en la labialització en les vocals posteriors del gaèlic escocès.

Ladefoged, P. i Disner, S. F. (2012). Vowels around the world. Vowels and consonants (3a ed., p. 176–185). Wiley-Blackwell. http://www.vowelsandconsonants3e.com/chapter_15.html

Moran, S. i McCloy, D. (Ed.). (2019). Language Scottish Gaelic. A PHOIBLE 2.0. Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. https://phoible.org/languages/scot1245

Contrasts de labialització en les vocals anteriors

Es donen també contrasts de labialització en les vocals anteriors.

French

/i/ /y/
/e/ /ø/
/ɛ/ /œ/

Contrast en la labialització en les vocals anteriors del francès.

Ladefoged, P. i Disner, S. F. (2012). Vowels around the world. Vowels and consonants (3a ed., p. 176–185). Wiley-Blackwell. http://www.vowelsandconsonants3e.com/chapter_15.html

Moran, S. i McCloy, D. (Ed.). (2019). Language French. A PHOIBLE 2.0. Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. https://phoible.org/languages/stan1290

German

/iː/ /yː/
/ɪ/ /ʏ/
/eː/ /øː/
/ɛ/ /œ/

Contrast en la labialització en les vocals anteriors de l’alemany.

Ladefoged, P. i Disner, S. F. (2012). Vowels around the world. Vowels and consonants (3a ed., p. 176–185). Wiley-Blackwell. http://www.vowelsandconsonants3e.com/chapter_15.html

Moran, S. i McCloy, D. (Ed.). (2019). Language German. A PHOIBLE 2.0. Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. https://phoible.org/languages/stan1295

Swedish

/iː/ /yː/
/ɪ/ /ʏ/
/eː/ /ʉː/
/ɛ/ /ɵ/
/ɛː/ /øː/
/æː/ /œː/

Contrast en la labialització en les vocals anteriors del suec.

Ladefoged, P. i Johnson, K. (2015). Swedish. A course in phonetics (7a ed.). Cengage Learning. https://linguistics.berkeley.edu/acip/course/chapter11/swedish/swedish.html

Moran, S. i McCloy, D. (Ed.). (2019). Language Swedish. A PHOIBLE 2.0. Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. https://phoible.org/languages/swed1254

tornar al principi

Tipologia fonètica: treballs específics sobre vocals


Tipologia fonètica: els sons vocàlics a les llengües del món
Joaquim Llisterri, Departament de Filologia Espanyola, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

Darrera actualització: